Saturday 30 January 2021

Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production








Hello students, in this topic about “ANIMAL HUSBANDARY’” we will learn about necessity of animal husbandry and its role in food

production. New techniques, such as embryo transfer technology and tissue culture are of great importance in increasing food

production because other depend on it.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY is a branch of agriculture which deals with the feeding, breeding and health care of livestock for getting maximum

benefits. Animal husbandry is the agricultural practice of breeding and

raising livestock like buffaloes, cows, pigs, goats, horses, etc. It includes poultry farming and fisheries. Fisheries include rearing, catching, selling etc. of fish, mollusks and crustaceans.


It is estimated that more than 70% of the work livestock population is in India and China. Dairying is the management of farm animals for getting milk and its products for human use. Milk yield is primarily dependent on the breed on the quality of the breeds. Animal breeding aims at increasing the yield of animals and improving the desirable qualities of the produce.


Another part of animal husbandry is animal breeding. Breeding of animals aims to develop high yielding animals and improve the desirable qualities of the produce.


Inbreeding — It refers to the practice of mating closely related superior males to superior females within the same breed for 4-6 generations. The superior males and females among the progenies are further mated for developing Mendelian pure lines

which are homozygous in nature. However, continued close inbreeding eventually decreases fertility and productivity; a

phenomenon was known as inbreeding depression.


Out-breeding — It is the breeding of the unrelated animals that can be carried out in three different fashions. When two unrelated

individuals of the same breed which do not have a common ancestor for the past 4-6 generations are mated, it is called out-



Mating between a superior male of one breed and a superior female of another breed to give a progeny with the combined

qualities of both breeds is known as crossbreeding.


When males and females across different related species are mated, it is known as interspecific hybridization.


Apart from conventional breeding techniques, controlled breeding experiments are conducted utilizing artificial insemination to yield the desired mating. To improve the chances of obtaining successful hybrids,programs like Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Technology

(MOET) are used.


Dairy farming is the agricultural technique concerned with the long-term production of milk, which is then processed to obtain dairy products such as curd, cheese, yoghurt, butter, cream, etc. It involves the management of dairy animals such as cows, buffaloes, sheep, goat, etc.


The animals are taken care of against diseases and are inspected regularly by veterinary doctors. A healthy animal is physically, mentally and socially sound.

 These animals are milked by hand or by machines. The milk is preserved and converted into dairy products industrially, which are then used for commercial purposes.


Poultry farming is concerned with raising and breeding of birds for commercial purposes. Birds like ducks, chickens, geese, pigeons,

turkeys, etc. are domesticated for eggs and meat.It is very important to take care of the animals and maintain them in a disease-free environment to obtain healthy food from them. The eggs and meat are a rich source of protein. Sanitation and hygienic conditions need to be maintained. The faeces of

birds are used as manure to improve soil fertility. Poultry farming provides employment to a large number of people and helps in improving the economy of the farmers.

Fish farming is the process of raising fish in closed tanks or ponds for

commercial purposes. There is an increasing demand for fish and fish protein. Fish species such as salmon, catfish, cod, and tilapia are raised in fish farms.

Fish farming or PISCICULTURE is of two types:


Extensive aquaculture, based on the local photosynthetic production


Intensive aquaculture, based on the external food supply given to fishes.


Bee farming or APICULTURE is the practice of maintaining bee colonies by humans in man-made hives. Honey bees are reared on a

large scale. The bees are domesticated for honey, wax, and to pollinate flowers. They are also used by other beekeepers for the same purposes.The place where bees are kept is Known as an APIARY or a bee yard.

Although it is not a labour-intensive practice, an idea of the following

points is necessary for successful bee-keeping: -


1. Selection of a suitable location for keeping the beehives.

2. Nature and habits of bees.

3. Catching and hiving of swarms.

4. Handling and collection of honey and beeswax.

5. Management of beehives during different seasons




1. Dairy products: Mammalian livestock can be used as source of milk and dairy products such as yogurt, cheese, butter, ice cream



2. Meat: It is the production of a useful form of dietary protein and energy.


3. Land management: the grazing of livestock is sometimes used as a way to control weeds and undergrowth.


4. Fiber: Livestock produce a range of fiber/textiles.


5. Labor: Animals such as horses, donkey and yaks can be used for mechanical energy. Prior to steam power livestock were the only

available source of non-human labor.


6. Fertilizers: Manure can be spread on fields to increase crop yields. This is important reason why historically plant and animal domestication have been intimately linked.


Animal husbandry has the following advantages:

1. Animal husbandry helps in the proper management of animals by providing proper food, shelter and protection against diseases to domestic animals.


2. It provides employment to a large number of farmer and thereby increases their living standards.


3. It helps in developing high yielding breeds of animals by cross breeding. This increases the production of various food products such as milk, eggs, meat, etc.


4. It involves the proper disposal of animal waste and promotes a healthy environment.



1. Multiple Choice Questions:

a. Agriculture practice of breeding and raising livestock is called:

i. Dairying

ii. Farming

iii. Animal husbandry

iv. Livestock husbandry


b. How much livestock population is found in India and China?

i. 70%

ii. 90%

iii. 60%

iv. 50%


c. A group of animals related by descent and similar in most characteristics are called:

i. Species

ii. Genus

iii. Breed

iv. Interbreeding


d. Which of the following is a breed of cattle?

i. Ghagus

ii. Kadaknath

iii. Scampi

iv. Aryshire


e. Which of the following is American poultry breed?

i. Aseel

ii. Minorea

iii. Rhode Island red

iv. Australorp


2. True / False:

a. Inbreeding increase chances of fertility.

b. Aryshire is breed of cattle used for inbreeding.

c. Surti is Indian breed for buffaloes.


3. Fill ups:

a. Milk yielding breeds of cattle are called

b. Honey bees are kept in .

C. and are two methods of fishing.


1. Multiple Choice Question:

a. (iii) Animal husbandry

b. (i) 70% livestock

c. (iii) Breed related animal by descent and characteristics

d. (iv) Aryshire is a breed of cattle

e. (iii) Rhode Island red is American poultry breed


2. True / False:

a. False, continued inbreeding decreases fertility.

b. True, Aryshire is breed of cattle.

c. True, Surti is a breed of Indian cattle.


3. Fill ups:

a. Milk yielding breeds of cattle are called milch breed.

b. Honey bees are keptin APIARY.

c. Angling and trapping are two methods of fishing



1. Explain how the animals are utilized to create products for human consumption.

2. Briefly explain animal husbandry.

3. Explain how animal husbandry is used for fiber, manure, meat and other products.



1. Explain how animal husbandry is linked with plant domestication?Write how they affect human welfare?





POULTRY:Poultry is the practice of domesticating fowls (birds) used for food or for their eggs.They typically include CHICKEN and DUCKS, and sometimes TURKEY and

GEESE. The word poultry is often used to refer to the meat of only these birds, but

in a more general sense it may refer to the meat of other birds too.


Poultry farming is undertaken to raise domestic fowl for egg production and

chicken meat. Therefore, improved poultry breeds are developed and farmed to

produce LAYERS (egg laying birds) for eggs and BROILERS for meat.


The cross-breeding programmes between Indian (Indigenous, e.g. Aseel) and

Foreign (Exotic, e.g. Leghorn) breeds for variety improvement are focused on to

develop new varieties for the following desirable traits:


(i) | number and quality of chicks.

(ii) dwarf broiler parent for commercial chick production.

(iii) Summer adaptation capacity/ tolerance to high temperature.

(iv) low maintenance requirements.

(v) Reduction in the size of the egg-laying bird with ability to utilize more

fibrous cheaper diets formulated using agricultural bye-products.



More than 90% of poultry farming is based on chiken or domestic fowl,Gallus domesticus.

Indian breeds of Chiken are:Aseel, Busra, Chittagong, Ghagus,Kadaknath etc.

Exotic breeds of Chiken are: White Leghorn, Plymouth Rock, New Hampshire, Australop and Rhode Island Red.Cross breed varieties are: HN-260, Poona Pearl, Grama Priya, Key stone

and High Line.


BROILER CHICKENS are Ted with vitamin-rich supplementary teed for good growth rate and better feed efficiency. Care is taken to avoid mortality and to maintain feathering and carcass (dead body) quality.They are produced as broilers and sent to market for meat purposes.


For good production of poultry birds, good management practices are important. These include maintenance of temperature and hygienic conditions in housing and poultry feed, as well as prevention and control of diseases and pests.


The housing, nutritional and environmental requirements of BROILERS are somewhat different from those of EGG LAYERS.


The ration (daily food requirement) for broilers is protein rich with adequate fat. The level of vitamins A and K is kept high in the poultry feeds.


Poultry fowl suffer from a number of diseases caused by virus (Fowl.pox, Ranikhet), bacteria (Fowl cholera), fungi (Candidiasis), parasites, as well as from nutritional deficiencies. BIRD FLU is an avian influenza which can also attack human beings. It is caused by Hs N: influenza. The pathogen is air bome. So the poultry workers have to be extra carefull. These necessitate proper cleaning, sanitation, and spraying of

disinfectants at regular intervals.


Appropriate vaccination can prevent the occurrence of infectious diseases and reduce loss of poultry during an outbreak of disease.


NUTRITIVE VALUE OF EGG: Energy value is 162 Kcal/100g.


Proteins: 12.9%, Lipids: 11.5%, arbohydrates: 0.2-0.7%, Minerals:all minerals with more amount of Ca, Fe and P. Vitamins: almost all.


Let Us Know What We Have Learnt!


a) Multiple Choice questions:


1. What are the types of Chicken Poultry farming:

(a) Layers

(b) Broilers

(c)A and B

(d) None of the Above


2. Broiler poultry Farming mainly aimed at:

(a) Eggs

(b) Meat

(c) Quills

(d) Bird Fat Oil


3. Layer poultry Farming mainly aimed at:

(a) Eggs

(b) Meat

(c) Quills

(d) Bird Fat Oil


4. The level of which vitamins is kept high in the poultry feeds..:

(a) AandK

(b) DandKk

(c) AandD

(d) BandKk


5. can prevent the occurrence of infectious diseases in poultry.

(a) Vaccination

(b) sanitation

(c) Spraying of disinfectants

(d) All ofthese


b) Fill in the blanks:

1. Poultry is the class of domesticated fowl (birds) used for food or for their

2. Broiler chickens are fed with ————_—srich supplementary feed.

3. | __ poultry Farming mainly aimed at meat production.


c) True/False:

1. The cross-breeding programs are focused on development of new varieties.

2. The level of vitamins B and K is kept high in the poultry feeds.



A) Multiple choice questions :

1. ¢ (Layers and broiler farming are the types of Chicken Poultry farming)


2. b (Broiler poultry Farming mainly aimed at meat production.)


3. a(Layer poultry Farming mainly aimed at egg production).


4.  a(The level of vitamins A and Kis kept high in the poultry feeds. )


5. d (vaccination, sanitation and spraying of disinfectants can prevent the occurrence of infectious diseases in Poultry.)


B) Fill in the blanks:

1. Eggs

2. Vitamins A and K

3. Broilers


C) True/False:

1. True

2. False: (Vitamin A and K)



1. Name two breeds of Chicken Poultry.

2. Explain Different management practices required for prevention and control of diseases and pests.



1. Write a note on Poultry farming.






APICULTURE is the scientific rearing of honey bees for the commercial production of honey and other bee products like wax, pollen, bee venom and royal jelly. It is also called Bee keeping. Bee keepers are known as apiarist

and place were bees are maintained is called an apiary.There are four well recognized types of bees in the world:

Apisdorsata (Rock bee), Apisflorea (Little bee), Apiscerana (indian bee),Apismellifera (European bee)



Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Insecta

Order: Hymenoptera

Family: Apidae

Genus: Apis


Honey bees are social insects. They live in colonies and showdivision of labour. The nest of honey bee is known as the bee hive. There

are three types of individuals in a colony namely the Queen bee, the drones and the worker bees. In a colony there is normally one queen,10,000 to 30,000 workers and few hundred drones (male bees).


1. a. Queen Bee is a fertile female present in each hive and feeds on Royal Jelly. They are formed from fertilized eggs. The queen

bee mates only once in her life. A unique flight called “nuptial flight” takes

place by the queen bee followed by several drones. The sole function of queen is to lay eggs. In a life span of two to four years, a queen bee laysabout 15 lakh eggs. When the queen bee loses its capacity to lay eggs,

another worker bee larva is fed with Royal Jelly and thus develops into a new queen.


2. fF The drone is the functional male member of the colony which develops from an unfertilized egg. It lives in a chamber called drone cell.Drones totally depend on workers for honey. The sole duty of the drone is to fertilize the virgin queen hence called “King of the colony”.


3. They are sterile female bees developed from the fertilized eggs. They are the smallest and are present in large number in

the colony. Their function is to collect honey, look after the young ones,clean the comb, defend the hive and maintain the temperature of the bee hive. Worker bee lives in a chamber called ‘Worker Cell’ and it takes about 21 days to develop from the egg to adult and its lifespan is about

six weeks. Each worker has to perform different types of work in her life

time. During the first half of her life, she becomes a nurse bee attending to indoor duties such as secretion of royal jelly, prepares bee-bread to feed the larvae, feeds the queen, takes care of the queen and

drones, secretes bees wax, builds combs, cleans and fans the bee hive. Then she becomes a soldier and guards the bee hive. In the second half her life lasting for three weeks, she functions like a forager to collect the pollen, nectar, propolis and water.



The COMB of the bees is formed mainly by the secretion of the wax glands present in the abdomen of the worker bee. A comb is a vertical sheet of wax with double layer of hexagonal cells. The cells of the comb are

of various types. The storage cells contain honey and pollen.They contain the young stages of the honey bees and they are built in the centre and the lower part of the comb. The brood chamber is divided into 

three types Worker chamber, Drone chamber and Queen chamber where the larvae developing into worker, drone and queen are reared.



Useful products obtained from honey bees are bee pollen, royal jelly,propolis and bee venom.


HONEY: The foraging worker bees suck the nectar from various flowers. The nectar passes to the honey sac. In the honey sac (honey stomach),sucrose present in the nectar mixes with acidic secretion and by enzymatic action it is converted into honey which is stored in the special chambers of the hive.


BEE WAX: Bee wax is the natural by-product secreted by the wax glands of worker bee to construct the combs of bee hive. It is widely used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. It is used for making candies, water proofing materials, polishes for floors, furniture, appliances,leather and taps.


BEE VENOM Bee venom is a colourless, acidic liquid. Bees excrete it through their stingers into a target when they sting. It contains both anti-inflammatory and inflammatory compounds, including enzymes, sugars, minerals, and amino acids. Bee venom is used for treating rheumatoid arthritis, nerve pain, multiple sclerosis etc.


ROYAL JELLY: It is a secretion produced by the hypo pharyngeal glands of nurse bees that is used in the nutrition of larvae as well as adult queen. Royal jelly is used in the treatment of asthma and also as a dietary




Bee keeping is a scientific method of keeping Acerana or A mellifera bees for the production of honey and other useful bee products.The main objective is to get more and more quality honey.There are two methods used by apiculturists. The traditional method and the modern method.Traditional Method of bee keeping/ Old or indigenous method: Traditional beehives simply provided an enclosure for the bee colony. Because no

internal structures were provided for the bees, the bees create their own honeycomb within the hives, mainly clay hive or mud hives pot. The comb is often cross attached and cannot be moved without destroying it. This is sometimes called a fixed-frame hive to differentiate it from the modem

movable-frame hives.


FIXED HIVE: The bees build hive in the natural space provided.


MOVABLE HIVE: It may be a hollow log, box or even earthen or wooden pots. The bees are collected from the wild and are placed into these hives.



Selection of species was not possible as swarming bees were used in this method.


Bees were either killed or smoked to extract honey. This disturbed the natural population of bees.


Honey was typically extracted by pressing -crushing the wax honeycomb to squeeze out the honey.



To overcome the drawbacks of the indigenous method, the modern method has been developed to improve the texture of hives.It was introduced by Rev. Lorenz Longstroth in 1851 for which he was awarded Nobel Prize.


In india, there are two types of beehives in practice namely, Langstroth and Newton.

The Langstroth or Newton's movable hive mainly consists of wood with basic six parts:


1) STAND is the basal part of the hive on which the hive is constructed. The stands are adjusted to make a slope for rain water to drain


2) BOTTOM BOARD is situated above the stand and forms the proper base for the hive. It has a gate, gate functions as an entrance for the foraging bees to enter and leave the hive


3) BROOD CHAMBER (hive body) is the most important part of the hive. It is provided with 8-10 frames through which the workers can easily pass. The frame is composed of wax sheet which is held in vertical position. It is the most important part of the hive. This chamber is used for brood rearing. In

addition to brood cells bees also maintain pollen cells and honey cells to store

pollen and honey for brood rearing.


4) SUPER OR HONEY CHAMBERS are placed above the excluder depending on the honey flow and season. It is provided with many frames

containing comb foundation to provide additional space honey storage.


5) INNER COVER is a wooden piece used for covering the super with many holes for proper ventilation.


6) TOP COVER is meant for protecting the colonies from rains. It is covered

with a sheet which is plain and sloping.

Besides the bee box other accessory equipment used in beekeeping are:


BEE GLOVES are used by bee keepers for protecting their hands while inspecting the hives.


BEE VEIL is a device made of fine nettings to protect the bee -keeper from bee sting.


SMOKER is used to scare the bees during hive maintenance and honey collection by releasing smoke.


HIVE TOOL is a flat, narrow and long piece of iron which helps in scraping excess propolis or wax from hive parts.


UNCAPPING KNIFE is a long knife which helps in removing the cap from the combs as a first step in honey extraction.


QUEEN INTRODUCING CAGE is a pipe made of wire nets used for keeping the queen for about 24 hours for acquaintance with the hive and

worker bees.


FEEDER is a basin with sugar syrup covered by grass to feed the bees during drought season. The grass prevents the bees from sinking into the syrup.


HONEY EXTRACTOR is a stainless-steel device which spins the combs rapidly to extract honey.


HIVE ENTRANCE GUARD/ QUEEN GATE is a device similar to queen excluder in front of the hive entrance which prevents the escape of queen during warming season.



Let us know what we have learnt! _

a) Multiple Choice questions:

1. Scientific rearing of honey bee for the commercial production of honey and other bee products is called:

(a) Pisciculture

(b) Apiculture

(c) Horticulture

(d) Sericulture


2. Amongst Honey bees, the workers are:

(a) Female

(b) Male

(c) Both Females and Males

(d) Hermaphrodite


3. Royal jelly is a secretion produced by :

(a) Salivary glands

(b) Prothoracic gland

(c) Hypo pharyngeal glands

(d) Hermaphrodite


4. Amongst Honey bees,which member is called ‘King of the colony’:

(a) Queen bee

(b) Drone bee

(c) Worker bee

(d) Hermaphrodite


5. Mordern method of Bee keeping was introduced by

(a) Rev. Lorenz Longstroth

(b) Drone bee

(c) Worker bee

(d) Hermaphrodite


b) Fill in the blanks:

1. is a fertile female present in each hive and feeds on Royal Jelly.

2. The brood chamber is divided into:Worker chamber, Drone Chamber and .

3. The comb is formed mainly by the secretion of the wax glands present

in the abdomen of the ;


c) True/False:

1. Honey Bee belongs to genus Apis.

2. Worker Bees are sterile female bees developed from the fertilized eggs.



A) Multiple choice questions :

1. _b (Scientific rearing of bees is called Apiculture)


2. a(Worker Bees are sterile female bees developed from the fertilized eggs.)


3. c(Royal Jelly is produced by hypopharyngeal glands of nurse bee).


4. bDrone fertilize the queen hence called “King of the colony”. .


5. a(Mordern method of Bee keeping was introduced by Rev. Lorenz Longstroth in 1851)


B) Fill in the blanks:

1. Queen Bee

2. Queen Chamber

3. Worker bee


C) True/False:

1. True

2. True


1. Name four well recognized types of bees found in the world.

2. Name any four useful products we get from honey bees.



1. Explain in detail social organization present in Honey Bees.





What is Fishery?

Fish are a very high source of proteins and have great nutritional value. Fish

production was initially dependent on fish capturing. However, most of the captured

fish were used for industrial purposes and were hardly consumed by man. Therefore,

an alternative method to increase fish production was devised that includes farming

and husbandry of economically important aquatic organisms. This is known as

aquaculture.Enhanced fish availability is called BLUE REVOLUTION.




CAPTURE FISHERY:Naturally occurring fish are harvested by capture fishery. Capture fishery is sometimes also known as wild fishery.


CULTURE FISHERY:This is the controlled cultivation of fish in water bodies. It can also be referred to as FISH FARMING or PISCICULTURE. Note that PISCICULTURE is a form of AQUACULTURE as aquaculture is the scientific rearing and management of all



Inland Fishery


Marine Fishery



In this, fishing is done in freshwater bodies, such as lakes, ponds, rivers, and

tanks. Reservoirs where freshwater bodies and seawater bodies join also form inland

fisheries. The method incorporated here is generally pisciculture, as the yield of

capture fishery is not very high. 5-6 species are reared in one water body. This

selection of species is such that they have different food habits yet there is no

competition for food. Common varieties reared are Rohu, Catla, Grass Carp,

Common Carp, etc.



With the Indian landmass being a peninsula, we have been blessed with a coastline of 7517 km. Thus, fishing is a source of livelinood for 14 million people.These 14 million people cast their fishing nets in marine fisheries, i.e. in marine waters- the sea and the ocean. These are further divided into coastal fisheries that are near the shore and off-shore or deep-sea fisheries that are deeper in the sea. Sardines, mackerel, hilsa, tuna, Pomfret, mussels, prawns, oysters, etc. are

some common types.


FISH FARMING About half the fish consumed today is raised globally through fish

farming. Some of the common fish species that are farmed include TUNA, SALMON,HALIBUT, COD, and TROUT. The aquafarms can be in the form of mesh cages submerged in water or concrete enclosures on land. However, the fish farms can damage the ecosystem by introducing diseases, pollutants and invasive species.




In this type of farming, economic and labour inputs are low. The natural food

production plays a major role in this type of farming. Fertilizers may be added to

increase the fertility and hence, the production of fish.


SEMI-INTENSIVE FISH FARMING:This method implies moderate levels of economic and labour inputs. The production can be increased by supplementary feeding or addition of fertilizers. Thus. the

production of fish is higher.


INTENSIVE FISH FARMING:In this method, the fish are stocked with as many fish as possible. The fish are fed with supplementary feed.



The farmed fish provides high quality protein for human consumption.


They serve as an important source of food.


Fish and sea foods are rich source of lodine.


Fish liver oil is rich source of vitamins A and D.


lsinglass got from air bladder is used for clearing wine.


Shark skin, called Shagreen is used as abrasive.


Fish meal is waste fish, used as manure and as feed in poultry.


Guppy fish — Poecilia reticulate and Mosquito fish - Gambusia affinis feed on mosquito larvae.


Fish farming can be integrated into the existing farm to create additional income

and improve its water management. Fisheries have an important role in Indian economy. They employ millions of fisnermen and farmers. Export earning is also significant.





A) MCQs:


1. The term used for breeding of fish in specially constructed tanks and ponds.

a) Viticulture

b) Agriculture

c) Horticulture

d) Pisciculture


2. What are the common fishes selected for pond culture systems?

a) Sharks and rays

b) Sardines and mackerels

c) Mullets, bhetki and pearl spots

d) Catlas, rohu, mrigals


3. Common carp, Silver Carp and Grass Carp are varieties of:

a) Fish

b) Rice

c) Oranges

d) Pulses


4. Which one of the following states is the leading producer of inland fish?

a) Andhra Pradesh

b) Bihar

c) Kerala

d) West Bengal


5. Which of the following is a marine fish:

a) Rohu

b) Hilsa

c) Catla

d) Common carp



1. Rohu is edible fresh water fish.

2. Grass Carp is a variety of Pulses.

3. Rearing of fish is called Fishery.



1. Production of all type of aquatic  organisms in water bodies is  called.............

2. Blue Revolution is related  o..............00....



A) MCQs:

1. D Pisciculture

2. D Catlas, rohu, mrigals

3. A Fish

4. C Kerala

5. B Hilsa



1. True

2. False: Grass Carp is a variety of fresh water fish species.

3. True



1. Aquaculture

2. Fishery Production



Q1. Name three common fresh water and three marine edible fishes.

Q2. Discuss fishery have an important place in Indian Economy.

Q3. What is Blue Revolution?

Q4. Write a note on Aquaculture?



Q1. Describe types of fishery.








PLANT BREEDING Traditional farming can only yield a limited biomass, as food for humans and animals. Better management practices and increase in acreage can increase yield, but only to a limited extent.Plant breeding as a technology has helped increase yields to a very large extent.Who in India has not heard of Green Revolution which was responsible for

our country to not merely meet the national requirements in food production but also helped us even to export it?Green revolution was dependent to a large extent on plant breeding techniques for development of high-yielding and disease resistant varieties in

wheat, rice, maize, etc.



Plant breeding is the purposeful manipulation of plant species in order to create desired plant types that are better suited for cultivation, give better yields and are disease resistant.Conventional plant breeding has been practiced for thousands of years,

since the beginning of human civilisation; recorded evidence of plant breeding dates back to 9,000-11,000 years ago. Many present-day crops are the result of domestication in ancient times.


Today, all our major food crops are derived from domesticated varieties. Classical plant breeding involves crossing or hybridisation of pure lines, followed by artificial selection to produce plants with desirable traits of higher yield, nutrition and resistance to diseases.


With advancements in genetics, molecular biology and tissue culture,plant breeding is now increasingly being carried out by using molecular genetic tools.


If we were to list the traits or characters that the breeders have tried to incorporate into crop plants, the first we would list would be increased crop yield and improved quality.


Increased tolerance to environmental stresses (salinity, extreme temperatures, drought), resistance to pathogens (viruses, fungi and bacteria) and increased tolerance to insect pests would be on our list too.


Plant breeding programs are carried out in a systematic way worldwide-in government institutions and commercial companies.


The main steps in breeding a new genetic variety of a crop are:


(i) COLLECTION OF VARIABILITY:Genetic variability is the root of any breeding program. In many crops pre-existing genetic variability is available from wild relatives of the crop. Collection and preservation of all the different wild varieties, species and relatives of the cultivated species (followed by their evaluation for their  haracteristics) is a pre-requisite for effective exploitation of natural genes available in the populations. The entire

collection (of plants/seeds) having all the diverse alleles for all genes in a given crop is called germplasm collection.



The germplasm is evaluated so as to identify and select plants with desirable combination of characters. The selected plants are multiplied and used in the process of hybridisation. Purelines are created

wherever desirable and possible.


(iii) CROSS HYBRIDISATION AMONG THE SELECTED PARENTS: The desired characters have very often to be combined from two different plants (parents), for example HIGH PROTEIN quality of one parent may need to be combined with DISEASE RESISTANCE from another parent.

This is possible by cross hybridizing the two parents to produce HYBRIDS that genetically combine the desired characters in one

plant.This is a very time-consuming and tedious process since the pollen

grains from the desirable plant chosen as male parent have to be collected and placed on the stigma of the flowers selected as female parent.Also, it is not necessary that the hybrids do combine the desirable

characters: usually only one in few hundred to a thousand crosses shows the desirable combination.


(iv) SELECTION AND TESTING OF SUPERIOR  ECOMBINANTS:This step consists of selecting, among the progeny of the hybrids,

those plants that have the desired character combination.The selection process is crucial to the success of the breeding objective and requires careful scientific evaluation of the progeny.This step yields plants that are superior to both of the parents.These are self-pollinated for several generations till they reach a state of uniformity (homozygosity), so that the characters will not segregate in the progeny.



(v) TESTING, RELEASE AND COMMERCIALISATION OF NEW CULTIVARS:The newly selected lines are evaluated for their yield and other

agronomic traits of quality, disease resistance, etc. This evaluation is

done by growing these in the research fields and recording their performanceunder ideal fertilizer application, irrigation, and other crop management practices.


The evaluation in research fields is followed by testing the materials in farmers’ fields, for at least three growing seasons at several locations in the country, representing all the agroclimatic zones where the crop is

usually grown. The material is evaluated in comparison to the best available local crop cultivar — a check or reference cultivar.


India is mainly an agricultural country. Agriculture accounts for approximately 33 per cent of India’s GDP and employs nearly 62 per

cent of the population. After India’s independence, one of the main challenges facing the country was that of producing enough food for the increasing population.


As only limited land is fit for cultivation, India has to strive to increase yields per unit area from existing farm land. The development of several high yielding varieties of wheat and rice in the mid-1960s, as a result of various plant breeding techniques led to dramatic increase in

food production in our country. This phase is often referred to as the Green Revolution.


WHEAT AND RICE:During the period 1960 to 2000, wheat production increased from

11 million tons to 75 million tons while rice production went up from 35 million tons to 89.5 million tons. This was due to the development of semi-dwart varieties of wheat and rice.Nobel laureate Norman E. Borlaug, at International Centre for Wheat and Maize improvement in Mexico, developed semi-dwarf

wheat. In 1963, several varieties such as Sonalika and Kalyan Sona,which were high yielding and disease resistant, were introduced all over the wheat-growing belt of India.


Semi-dwarf RICE varieties were derived from IR-8, (developed at International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Philippines) and

Taichung Native-1 (from Taiwan). The derivatives were introduced in

1966. Later better-yielding semi-dwarf varieties Jaya and Ratna were

developed in India.



Saccharum barberi was originally grown in north India, but had poor sugar content and yield. Tropical canes grown in south India

Saccharum officinarum had thicker stems and higher sugar content but did not grow well in north India.


These two species were successfully crossed to get sugar cane varieties combining the desirable qualities of high yield, thick stems,high sugar and ability to grow in the sugar cane areas of north India.



Hybrid maize, jowar and bajra have been successfully developed in India. Hybrid breeding have led to the development of

several high yielding varieties resistant to water stress.



Plant breeding may be used to create varieties, which are resistant to pathogens

and to insect pests. This increases the yield of the food. This method has also

been used to increase the protein content of the plant foods and thereby enhance

the quality of food. In India, several varieties of different crop plants have been

produced. All these measures enhance the production of food.




A) Mutiple Choice Type Questions:


Q1. Which one of the following show maximum genetic diversity in India?

a) Groundnut

b) Rice

c) Maize

d) Mango


Q2. Triticale is produced by the crossing of:

a) Wheat and rye

b) Wheat and maize

c) Wheat and barley

d) Rye and maize


Q3. Polyploidy can be produced artificially by:

a) Colchicine

b) Inbreeding

c) Line bleeding

d) Pollination



Q4. An example for Sami draft variety of wheat:

a) IR-8

b) Sonalika

c) Triticum

d) Saccharum


Q5. Ex plant require for virus free culture is:

a) Root

b) Shoot tip

c) Leaf

d) Leaf and root


B) True/ false:

1. The use of colchicine is involved in production of a polyploidy .

2. Hybridization is most commonly used for creation of genetic variation.

3. Sonalika and kalyan are varieties of maize.


C) Fill ups:

1. Oldest method of crop improvement is

2. ICAR full form







1. b) Rice

2. a) Wheat and Rye

3. a) Colchicine

4. b) Sonalika

5. b) Shoot tip





3. FALSE: Sonalika and Kalyan are varieties of Wheat.



1. Selection method

2. Indian Council of Agricultural Research



Q1. What is green revolution?

Q2. Why plant breeding is essential?

Q3. Name the different hybrid plants which boost crop production.



Q1. Write and explain various step involving in the plant breeding.




More than 35% human population is suffering from hunger and malnutrition.Conventional agricultural produce would not be able to meet the rising demand of food.Therefore alternative methods of raising food items have to be searched.One of them is Single Cell Protein.Single Cell Protein or SCP actually means a protein rich biomass of

unicellular microorganisms.


Single Cell Protein is dried cells of micro-organism which can be used as dietary protein supplement.


This biomass is obtained from both mono and multicellular micro-organism.


Also called Novel food and Mini food.


Conventional agricultural production of cereals, pulses, vegetables, fruits etc, may

not be able to meet the demand of food at the rate at which human and animal population is increasing.


The shift from grain to meet diets also creates more demand for cereals as it take

3-10 Kg of grain to produce 1 Kg of meat by animal farming.


More than 25% human population is suffering from hunger and malnutrition. One of alternate sources of proteins for animal and human nutrition is single cell protein



Production of SCP requires micro-organisms that serve as the protein source and the substrate that is biomass on which they grow.


There is a variety of both the sources that can be used for the production of SCP.


The biomass used can be plant biomass or organic biomass.


The micro-organisms used belong to the group of Algae, Fungi and Bacteria.


1) Cyanobacteria- Spirulina

2) Bacteria- Methylophilus, methylotrophus

3) Yeasts- Candida, Utilis

4) Filamentous Fungi- Fusarium gramiearum


Biomass also plays a very important role in the production of SCP.


Selection of biomass depends on the micro-organisms used for the production.


1) ALGAE BIOMASS - Algae grows auto-tropically.Requires low density of light.


Temperature- 35° — 40° C


pH value: 8.5- 10.5


Cultivated in large trenches of sewage oxidation ponds.


2.Can be easily grown on a wide range of substrates.They require a minimum temperature of 15°-34°C and pH of 5-7



Cultivated on agro-industrial wastes such as molasses, Starchy materials, fruit pulp, wood pulp, etc.


Requires a temperature of 30°-40°C and pH of 3.5-4.5


Also requires addition of inorganic acids and sulphur supplement in the form of salts.


llumination Time


Temperature ° pH


Suitable Strains



1) Microbes grow at a faster rate.

2) The equality and quantity of protein in microbes is compared to higher plants

and animals.

3) Wide range of raw materials can be used.

4) The production processes are easy and simple.

5) Microbes can be easily subjected to genetic manipulation.



1) High nucleic acid content of many microbes that could be result in KIDNEY STONE FORMATION or GOUT.

2) Poor digestibility, gastrointestinal problems and skin reactions.

3) Some kind of SCP exhibits unpleasant color and flavours.

4) Some yeast and fungal proteins tend to be deficient in methionine.

5) Contamination Risk


1) The development of Single Cell Protein is just a beginning in biotechnology.

2) With the improvement in the production of SCPs, we can solve the malnutritive conditions of the progressing countries and can also introduce better quality of food and taste with decreased chances of occurrence of side effects. Moreover, genetic modification in micro-organisms can lead to a

better future of SCPs in bio-technology.


The world population was continuously increasing, suffer from a lack of food,

so that fighting hunger continues to be a challenge for humanity On the other hand, the world health organization estimates that, worldwide,1.5 billion people are overweight


Increasingly, these two forms of malnutrition, underweight and overweight,

are occurring simultaneously within the different countries.PS BIOFORTIFICATION is a breeding crop with higher level of vitamins and minerals or higher protein and healthier fat. It is the most practical means to improve public health.Breeding for improved nutrition quality is undertaken with the objectives of improving-

1) Protein content and quality

2) Of content and quality

3) Vitamin content

4) Micronutnent and mineral content


1) HYBRID OF MAIZE-In 2000, maize hybrids that had twice the amount of amino acids, lysine and Tryptophan, compared to existing maize hybrids were developed.


2) HYBRID OF WHEAT-Wheat variety, ATLAS 66, having a high protein content, has been used as a donor for improving cultivated protein.


3) HYBRID OF RICE-It has been possible to develop an lron- Fortified rice variety containing over 5-time as much iron as in commonly consumed varieties.

The Indian Agriculture research institute NEW DELHI has also released several vegetative crops that are rich in vitamin and minerals.


1) VITAMIN ‘A’ ENRICHED — Carrots, Spinach, Pumpkin

2) VITAMIN 'C’ ENRICHED- Bitter- guard, Bathua, Mustard, Tomato

3) [RON AND CALCIUM ENRICHED- Spinach and Bathua

4) PROTEIN ENRICHED- Beans- broad, Lablab, French, and Garden peas


Reaching rural communities without access to pharmaceutical supplements or fortified food and improving life- time nutritional status.


Less susceptible to social and economic changes than short term interventions.


The potential to impact a large number of people at a low cost per person.



Q1. The scientific process by which crop plants are enriched with certain

desirable nutrient is called:

a) Crop Protection

b) Breeding

c) Bio-Fortification

d) Bio- Remedation


a) Histidine and Glycine

b) Histidine and Valine

c) Lysine and Methionine

d) Proline and Leucine


Q3. The protein obtained from micro-organisms like Yeast and bacteria is called as:

a) SBP

b) SSC

c) HCP



4. Wheat flour is fortified with which nutrients?

a) Vitamin A and Vitamin D

b) Iron, Folic acid and Vitamin B12

c) Folic acid, Vitamin B12 and Vitamin D

d) Vitamin A, Iron and Vitamin CQ


5. Which of the following products are fortified in India?

1) Milk and oil

2) Salt

3) Wheat flour and Rice

4) All the above



1. Sugar Molasses is important substrate for yeast

2. Spirulina algae is used mostly for SCP

3. ATLAS66 is hybrid of maize



1. Which form of Vitamin A is used in fortification of food.........

2. Spirulina grow best at which PH.........




1. (c) Bio-Fortification: It is the scientific process by which crop plants are

enriched with certain desirable nutrient.


2. (c) Lysine and Methionine: SCP is rich in two amino-acids — Lysine and Methionine.


3. (d) SCP- Single Cell protein is the protein obtained from micro-organisms like

Yeast and bacteria.


4. (b) Iron, Folic acid and Vitamin By2 nutrients are fortified in wheat Flour.


5. (d) All of the above products are fortified in India.



1. TRUE : Sugar Molasses is important substrate for yeast.

2. TRUE : Spirulina algae is used mostly for SCP

3. FALSE : because ATLAS-66 is hybrid of wheat.



1. RETINOL is the form of Vitamin A is used in fortification of food

2. At PH 9.5 Spirulina grow best


Q1. What do you meant by Bio-Fortification?

Q2. What is the significance of SCP?

Q3. Give two examples of Bio- Fortified crops.

Q4. State the importance of Bio- Fortification.


Q1. Write an explanatory note on SCP?





Plant tissue culture is one of the latest and most promising methods of crop improvement in such plants, where all other conventional methods of breeding fail.This culture technique is based on totipotent nature of plant cell.Plant tissue culture is the technique of maintaining and growing plant cells,tissue and organs in sterilized culture medium under controlled aseptic conditions.




1) EXPLANT.Piant part that is excised from its original location and used for initiating a culture. It may be root tip, shoot bud, anther, embryo, ovule etc.


2) SURFACE STERILIZATION:The process of treatment of explant with specific antimicrobial chemicals like sodium hypochlorite, H2O2, Bromine water, C2HsOH etc.


3) AERATION OF THE TISSUE:It is achieved by stirring the medium by automatic shaker.


4) NUTRIENT MEDIUM:Standard culture medium contains inorganic salts, Vitamins, Sucrose,

growth regulators (2,4-D, Cytokinins)

Growth regulators are required for cell division and organogenesis in explant.









1) CALLUS CULTURE : In callus culture, when an explant is placed on a medium gel with agar many of the cells became meristematic and begin to divide and giving rise to CALLUS in two or three weeks. The agar medium

contain both type of growth regulators Auxin like 2,4-D and Cytokinin like

BAP(6-Benzyl Amino Purine)


SUSPENSION CULTURE:In case of Suspension culture a single cell or small group of cells is placed on liquid medium. The medium normally contain Auxin 2,4-D. These cells divide and form small group of cells. The suspension cultures are continuously agitated to break the cell mass into smaller clumps and single cells, and also maintain

uniform distribution of cells and cell clumps in the medium. Suspension culture grow faster than the Callus culture. The process of transferring the cell culture into a fresh culture, medium is called Subculturing.



Use of an explant that contains the pre-existing shoot meristem and produce shoot from them.


Explant are cultured on a medium containing cytokinin (BAP)


Cytokinin promotes axillary branching by overcoming apical dominancy.


Now multiple shoot produce from each explant. Each shoot are cultured but when auxiliary branching does not take place the single

shoot is cut into nodal segments which are then cultured.


When the shoots become 2-3 cm long they are excised and rooted on a suitable medium.


When the plantlet has grown a few leaves it is transferred to soil after hardening.



Rapid clonal multiplication


Production of virus free plant


Conservation of germ plasm


Production of transgenic plant



Application of embryo culture method to prevent the abortion of the interspecific hybrid embryo is called EMBRYO RESCUE.


AIM: Aim of embryo culture is to allow to young embryos to develop into complete seedling and overcoming hybridization barriers.



1) In some interspecific crosses the endosperm of developing hybrid seeds

degenerate very early so young hybrid embryo which gets devoid of nutrition also dies. In such cases the young hybrid embryo is excised.


2) Seed of some plant like Orchid lack stored food. In such cases embryo culture allows seedling development from the embryos. This method is also used for rapid clonal propagation in orchid.



Anther culture is also Known as pollen grain culture or androgenic haploid culture.


When anthers of a plant species are cultured on a suitable medium, then haploid plants are produced, this method is called Anther Culture.


This technique was first used in India to produce haploid plants of Datura Innoxia by Guha and Maheshwari


Sometime diploid plants are also formed among haploid plants. Source of these haploid plants is anther wall (which is diploid).

Haploids can also be produced by culturing — unfertilized ovules.


HAPLOID plants are very useful in plant breeding because:

1. They have single set of chromosome, so even a very small change of mutation can be detected in haploids.


2. These haploids are used to produce homozygous diploids (by colchicine

treatment) and these homozygous diploids are used as parents in crossing.


3. Use of haploids in producing pure lines has reduced the period required for developing new varieties from 10 years to 5 years.



SOMATIC HYBRID: A hybrid produced by fusion of somatic cells of two species or varieties.


The process of production of somatic hybrid is SOMATIC HYBRIDISATION.


PROTOPLAST: Cell wall less plant cell is called protoplast.



1. REMOVAL OF CELL WALL: Two methods:





Discovered by Cocking:In this method cell wall is digested by using Pectinase and Cellulase enzyme.




(i) SPONTANEOUS FUSION- During enzymatic treatment some protoplast fused together and form multinucleated structure which is called



This is intraspecific fusion.


Not very useful in study.



Protoplast of two different species is fused together by induced fusion.


Substance which induces the fusion of protoplast is called Fusogenic Agent.



Product of fused protoplast of two different species is calked HETEROKARYON.


Heterokaryons are mainly used in tissue culture.


When the fused protoplasts are cultured on a suitable medium they regenerate cell walls and begin to divide to ultimately produce




It allows the production of hybrids between different lines and species that can not

be produced by sexual reproduction.


POMATO is somatic hybrid between potato and tomato


BROMATO- Brinjal and Tomato



For gene transfer


Transfer of cytoplasm


Production of useful allopolyploids



1. RAPID CLONAL PROPAGATION: A clone is a group of individuals or cells drive from single parent. individual or cell through asexual reproduction. All the cells in callus are derived from single explant by mitotic division.


2. SOMACLONAL VARIATION: Genetic variation present among plant cells of a culture is called Soma Clonal variation. This variation has been used to develop several useful varieties.


3. TRANSGENIC PLANTS: The transgenes can be introduced into the individual plant cells. The plantlets can be regenerated from these cells.






Q1. Part of plant used for culturing:

a) Scion

b) Explant

c) Stock

d) Callus


Q2. Growth hormone producing apical dominance is:

a) Auxin

b) Gibberellin

c) Ethylene

d) Cytokinin


Q3. To obtain haploid plant, we culture:

a) Entire anther

b) Nucleus

c) Embryo

d) Apical bud


Q4. Which of the following plant cell will show totipotency?

a) Xylem vessel

b) Sieve tube

c) Meristem

d) Cork cell


Q5. The growth of plant tissue in artificial medium is called:

a) Gene expression

b) Transgenesis

c) Plant tissue culture

d) Cell hybridisation



1) Colchicine prevents the formation of spindle apparatus during mitosis.

2) STEWARD perform his experiment to show totipotency.

3) Somatic embryo developed from Anther cell.



1. ........... is unorganised mass of cell in plant tissue culture.

2. Development of organ from cell in culture medium is called.........





1. (B) Explant- Explant is the part that we use in tissue culturing


2. (A) Auxin — Auxin is the growth hormone which produce apical dominance


3. (A) Entire Anther- Entire Anther is used for culturing haploid plant


4. (C) Meristem- Meristem tissue is used to produce new cell


5. (C) Plant tissue culture- It is medium for culture of new plant



1. True- Colchicine inhibits the spindle formation.

2. True- STEWARD performs his experiment to show totipotency.

3. False- Somatic embryo developed from Somatic cell.



1. Callus is unorganized mass of cells.

2. Totipotency- Development of organ from cell in culture medium.




Q1. What is an explant?

Q2. What is an anther culture? Write its applications.

Q3. What are major advantages of producing plants by micro propagation?



Q1. What is Somatic hybridization? Briefly explain steps involved. Give one


Q2. What do you mean by tissue culture? Explain in brief.




           RECAPTULATION :

Dear students, we have studied various STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCEMENT IN FOOD PRODUCTION. We, human beings, derive our food from two major sources viz. plants and animals. Plant food production is enhanced via PLANT BREEDING. The techniques of tissue culture and somatic hybridization

offer vast potential for manipulation of plants in vitro to produce new varieties. Wealso leamt about good animal husbandry practices of management of farm & farm animals and animal breeding. Towards the end, we were introduced to APICULTURE and FISHERY. Now, we are in a position to answer the following questions :


Q.1. Explain in brief the role of animal husbandry in human welfare.

Solution:1. Production of meat: Meat is a valuable source of energy and dietary proteins.


2. Production of dairy products: Animal husbandry provides a wide range of dairy

products such as milk, cheese, butter, gnee and curd. These may be further processed for other commercial products such as ice creams and cottage cheese (paneer).


3. Production of fibre: Animals such as sheep and goat are primarily reared for their wool. Insects such as silkworms are highly valuable from a commercial perspective.


4. Labour: Certain animals such as horses, donkey and buffaloes are well-suited

for mechanical labour. They are cost-effective and very efficient. Before

industrialisation, it was the only non-human source of mechanical labour.


5. Production of fertilisers: Fertilizers are quite crucial for plant growth.Furthermore, natural fertilisers provided other benefits such as an alternate source of fuel and insulation.


Q.2. If your family owned a dairy farm, what measures would you undertake to improve the quality and quantity of milk production?

Solution:Dairy cows or other milk-producing animals have to be kept in a well-ventilated

housing.An adequate supply of clean water must be provided.Emphasis should be provided on the quality and quantity of the feed.

Ensure stringent hygiene and cleanliness when handling cattle or other dairy animals.

Regular visits to the vet also reduce the chance of contracting illnesses.Ensure the animals are regularly vaccinated.



Q.3. What is meant by the term ‘breed’? What are the objectives of animal breeding?

Solution: A ‘breed’ is defined as a group of animals that have a common descent

and share standard characteristic features such as size and appearance.The common objectives of animal breeding are:

Toincrease the yield of animals (concerming dairy, fibre, meat).Toincrease the desirable traits and features. (such as cows that are selectively bred for larger quantities of meat).To increase disease resistance.

TO produce superior breeds.


Q.4. Name the methods employed in animal breeding. According to you, which of the methods is best? Why?

Solution: Methods employed in animal breeding are:Out-crossing




Inter-specific hybridisation


Artificial Insemination


MOET (multiple ovulation embryo transfer technology)MOET is considered the best method of breeding as it overcomes the hurdles

of natural breeding while ensuring high success rates for crossing between male and female animals. It is also economically viable than the other mentioned techniques.


Q.5. What is apiculture? How is it important in our lives?

Solution: Apiculture or beekeeping is defined as the processes and steps necessary to ensure the upkeep and maintenance of honey-bee hives for the production of honey.

Honey is essential for MANY REASONS:

Itis highly nutritious and is used as an ingredient in many dishes.Itcan replace sugar as a healthier alternative.Besides culinary applications, honey has also been used to heal wounds due to its antibacterial properties.Itis also considered to alleviate cold and cough symptoms.From acommercial perspective, it is considered as an income-generating activity and is not very labour-intensive.


Q. 6. Discuss the role of fishery in the enhancement of food production.

Solution: Fisheries is defined as a coordinated effort to capture or rear fish

through fishing farms and aquaculture. However, fisheries are not just limited

to fish; for instance, oysters are selectively bred for pearls, shells and tissues.Fisheries play a significant role in food production, especially in India. From a

dietary perspective, fish is an affordable source of animal protein. From a commercial perspective, fisheries provide employment opportunities for residents in coastal areas.


Q. 7. Briefly describe various steps involved in plant breeding.

Solution: Plant breeding is defined as the process of changing select traits in order

to bring about desired characteristics. It is primarily used for improving the

nutritional value of plants. Following are the steps observed in plant breeding:

Accumulation of genetic variabili

Germplasm evaluation & parent selection

Cross hybridisation of selected parents

Choosing superior hybrids Testing viability of new cultivars


Q. 8. Explain what bio-fortification is?

Solution: Bio-fortification is a process of breeding crops to improve their nutritional

value. Bio-fortification is different from food enrichment as the emphasis is given

on plants being nutritious as they are growing rather than adding in the nutrients

during food processing.It is primarily aimed at reducing deficiency disorders in the general public.Examples of bio-fortified crops involve GOLDEN RICE, a variety of rice (Oryza sativa) genetically engineered to have increased amounts of beta carotene, a

precursor to Vitamin A. Micronutrient deficiency is common in developing and

under-developed countries. Hence, bio-fortified crops are a feasible option to tackle this problem.


Q.9. Which part of the plant is best suited for making virus-free plants and why?

Solution: Virus-free plants can be made if the axillary and apical meristem are

used. These regions are used as they are unaffected by the virus when compared

to the rest of the plant. Scientists have used this method to develop virus-free

plants of sugarcane, banana, and potato etc.




Q.10. What is the major advantage of producing plants through micropropagation?

Solution: Micro propagation is a method wherein new plants are produced in a shorter duration with the help of Plant Tissue Culture methodologies. The major advantages are as follows:

1. Micro propagation helps to propagate large amounts of plants in a relatively short amount of time.


2. The resultant plants are identical to the parent plant.


3. Production of disease-resistant crops.


Q.11. Find out what the various components of the medium used for propagation of an explant in vitro.

Solution:The various components of the medium used for propagation of an explant in vitro

are sources of carbon such as sucrose, vitamins, minerals, water, agar-agar, auxins

and gibberellins, amino acids.


Q.12. Name any five hybrid varieties of crop plants which have been developed in India.


Pusa komal (Cowpea)

Pusa shubra (Cauliflower)

Pusa swarnim (Mustard)

Jaya (Rice)

Sonalika (Wheat)





Children, we know that the population of world is increasing day by day. In order to feed the huge population, we need to enhance our crops and improve the quality of animals by scientific methods.This is done by:


1. Animal breeding

2.Plant breeding

3.Bee keeping

4.Tissue culture etc.


ANIMAL BREEDING: Animal breeding is mainly of two types; Inbreeding and outbreeding.

Outbreeding is breeding between animals of different breeds.Outbreeding is again of three types: Outcrossing, Cross Breeding and

Intra -Specific Inbreeding (which is the breeding between close relatives).


APICULTUPE : Rearing of honeybees for obtaining honey and wax is called apiculture. We get honey and wax from honey bees. Apis indica is the most common bee reared in India. Successful bee keeping needs:


1.Knowledge of the nature of the bees 2.Project should be away

from railway tracks and power stations 3.Supply of clean water

4.Disease-free colony 5.Rich flora availability.




The process of cultivating silkworms and the production of silk from them is called sericulture. The common worm is Bombyx mori.

India and China contribute 60% to the total production of silk in the world. Silk is a fiber made of sericin and fibroin proteins. The caterpillars of silkworm secrete these by their silk glands and make the hard covering of silk fibers around them, which is known as the cocoon. Each silk cocoon has about 1000 meters of silk thread. These silkworms are fed on mulberry leaves. The caterpillars transform into cocoons, which are boiled so as to extract silk. Cocoons, in nature,

evolve into silkmoths, which, give birth to caterpillars - and the cycle continues.



EXPLANT: A part of plant used in tissue culture to produce whole plant.


TISSUE CULTURE: This is the technique where whole plant can be grown in culture medium using explant.


TOTIPOTENCY: The capacity of a cell to grow into a whole plant is called totipotency.


SOMATIC EMBRYO: Somatic embryo develops from somatic cells.


BIOFORTIFICATION: Breeding crops for higher levels of vitamins and minerals is called biofortification.


SINGLE CELL PROTEINS: Any microbial biomass produced by


unicellular or multicellular organisms which can be used as SPIRULINA.


EMASCULATION: The removal of anthers from the flower of a parents considered to be female in a cross.


CALLUS : Undifferentiated mass of cells formed in tissue culture.


HETEROSIS OR HYBRID VIGOUR: Superiority of F1 generation over those two parents ,in terms of growth and yield.





Q 1. Single cell proteins (SCP) represents:

a) proteins from a clone of cells.

b) proteins obtained from growth of microbes

c) proteins extracted from microorganisms

d) protein mass single cell animal.


Q2. Spirulina is:

a) biofertilizers

b) biopesticide

c) single cell proteins

d) an edible fungus


Q 3. Hybrid vigour is exploited by:

a) clonal selection

b) crossing of two plants

c) species differentiation

d) none of the above


Q 4. Which one is matched correctly?

a) Apiculture Honey bee

b) pisciculture silk moth

c) sericulture fish


Q 5. Exortic breeds of poultry are:

a) white leghorn and Rhode Island red

b) Rhode Island red and Andalusian

c) Plymouth and Andalusian

d) white leghorn and Andalusian



1. is the semi dwarf variety of wheat introduced from Mexico

2 is always the main objective of plant breeding.

3 Pure line selection is used in .

4 One of the best methods to get disease free plants is .

5 Spirulina is a .



1. Define germplasm. How is it maintained?

2. Expand MOET.

3. Briefly explain the contribution of Dr V.Kurien.

4. What is the importance of MOET?



1. Explain inbreeding depression. How can we overcome it?




INTRODUCTION:Traditional agricultural practices are not sufficient to fulfill increasing food demands of increasing human population so Single Cell Protein is an

alternative source of producing protein rich microbial biomass by unicellular or multi-cellular micro-organisms for human and animal



SINGLE CELL PROTEIN:-Single Cell Protein is Microbial biomass produced by unicellular and multi-cellular micro-organisms and can be

used as food or feed additives.


SCP is a protein rich biomass.


Protein content is 45 to 55% and even more in some cases.Protein contents of SCP of certain micro-organism


PRODUCTION OF SCP: - Process of production of SCP involves following steps:-


(a) Preparation of suitable medium with suitable carbon source (e.g. Methanol

for Methylophilus bacterium, Sulphite liquor for Paecilomyces COz for Chlorella & Spirulina.


(b) Addition of certain salts and gaseous ammonia to carbon source to promote

the growth of micro-organisms.


(c) Inoculation of Pure strain of selected micro-organism.


(d) Proper aeration & cooling of the medium.


(e) The SCP is collected from the medium by a variety of methods like filtration or centrifugation.



a) SCP is rich in protein but poor in fats.

b) SCP can be produced throughout the year.

c) Huge quantities of SCP can be produced from small area due to rapid growth of microbes.

d) Substrates used are cheaper e.g. Spirulina is grown on waste water from potato processing plant s which has high amount of starch.


(a) Some microbes are harmful for human and animals as they can produce toxin in their biomass.

(b) Microbial biomass may lead to allergic reactions and indigestion.

(c) Higher nucleic acid content in SCP may lead to kidney stone.

(d) Production SCP is very expensive.



(a) SCP used as food source for example in soup, as vitamin carriers, in ready to serve food items etc.

(b) Have medicinal uses.

(c) Used in paper industry, leather processing and foam stabilizer.

(d) Used in poultry industry and animal feed industry.




A) MCQs:


1.Single cell protein is?

a) Protein synthesised by muscle cells

b) Protein synthesised by skin cells

c) Protein synthesised by microorganisms

d) Protein synthesised by liver cells.


2.SCP is rich in which of the following amino acids

a) Histidine and valine

b) Histidine and glycine

c) Proline and leucine

d) Lycine and methionine


3.Methanol is used as carbon source for:

a) Methylophilus Bacterium

b) Spirulina

c) Chlorella

d) Paecilomyces


4.What of the following is most common sources of SCP?

a) Unicellular algae

b) Unicellular bacteria

c) multicellular yeast

d)Single celled yeast


5. Which of the following is not organic matter on which microorganism are raised for SCP?

a) Sawdust

b) paddy straw

c) Acid

d) whey



1. can be grown on waste water from potato processing plant.

2.Sugar__is important substrate for yeast .

3. SCP environmental pollution.



1. 250gm of micro-organism like Methylophillus methylotrophus can produce 25 tonnes of protein.

2. Shift from grain to meat diets creates more demand for cereals.



A. Multiple choice questions:


1.(c) SCPs are Protein produced by micro-organism like algae,fungi and bacteria etc.


2.(d) SCPs rich in amnio-acids lysine and methionine.


3.(a) Methanol is used as carbon source for Methylophilus bacterium


4.(d) Single celled yeast for e.g Candida utilis is most common source of SCP.


5.(c) Microbial biomass can be raised using organic matter like sawdust, paddy straw and whey.


B. Fill Ups:

1. Spirulina

2. Molasses

3. Reduces


C. True/False:

1. True: Because of high rate of biomass production and growth 250gm

of Methylophilus can produce 25 tons protein.

2. True: As it takes 3 to 10 kg of grain to produce 1 kg of meat by animal farming.



1. What is SCP?

2. Name steps involved in production of SCP.

3. What is the economic value of Spirulina?



1. Discuss advantages, disadvantages and applications of SCP?




Increase is population has led to increase in need of food production through animal

husbandry and plant breeding.



Itis the agricultural practice of breeding and raising livestock.


Involves poultry, farming, fishery


Significance to improve quality and productivity of livestock and their products

(milk, eggs, meat, wool, silk, honey)


Breed refers to a group of animals related by descent and similar in most characters (general appearance, features, size)




Dairy Farm Management

Management of animals(cattle) for milk and its products for human consumption


Helps to enhance yield and improve quality of milk


Breeds with high yielding potential and disease resistance are selected


TYPES-milch breed (milk producing), draught breed (used in agricultural fields)


JERSEY is improved breed of cattle

Poultry Farm Management Management of domesticated fowl(birds) used for food or for their eggs Includes chicken, duck, turkey, geese


LEGHORN is improved breed of chicken

Qoug Vara os fair cose adequate water, cleanliness, hygiene, proper feed



Aims at increasing yield of animals and improve qualities of the produce


TYPES: Inbreeding, Outbreeding


INBREEDING: Mating of more closely related individuals within the same breed

for 4-6 generations.


It involves mating superior female (cow/buffalo-produce more milk per lactation)

with superior male (bull-give rise to superior progeny)


SIGNIFICANCE:produce pure lines/increase homozygosity

accumulation of superior genes


elimination of less desirable genes



Exposes harmful recessive genes


Leads to inbreeding depression (reduce fertility and productivity)



OUT-BREEDING It is of following types:


OUT-CROSSING:Mating of animals within the same breed but having no common ancestors on either side upto 4-6 generation.


CROSS-BREEDING: Mating of superior males of one breed with superior female of another breed.


Example-Bikaneri ewe mated with Marino ram produced new breed of sheep Hisardale


INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDISATION: Mating of male and female animals of two different related species.

Example-Mule is produced by mating of female horse and male donkey







ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION: It is a procedure by which sperm (suspension,fresh, frozen) is introduced manually into female reproductive tract to overcome the problem of natural mating.


MULTIPLE OVULATION EMBRYO TRANSFER TECHNOLOGY(MOET): female produces 6-8 eggs per cycle under the influence of hormones (FSH) injected in her body.



Apis indica is the common bee species used in apiculture


Honey, Beeswax, Royal Jelly are the products obtained


Honey and beeswax are used in making medicine and polishes,cosmetics respectively


Bees are pollinators of sunflower, Brassica, apple, pea



Catching, processing, selling of fish, shellfish and other aquatic animals

(prawn, crab, lobster, oyster)


Culture and rearing of fish is PISCICULTURE


Culture and rearing of fish as well as other aquatic animals is



Freshwater fishes- Catla, Rohu


Marine fishes-Hilsa, Sardines


Fishery has increased due to “BLUE



FSH and LH are the hormones involved in spawning (egg laying) in fishes


(a)Multiple choice questions

(1) How is pureline of animals raised?

(a) outbreeding

(b) inbreeding

(c) outcrossing

(d) cross breeding


(2) Which algae is used in production of SCP?

(a) Spirulina

(b) methylophilus

(c) candida

(d) triticale


(3) Meristem culture is used to obtain

(a) bacteria free plant

(b) virus free plant

(c) both (a) and (b)

(d) none


(4) The common species of honey bees used in apiculture is

(a) Apis indica

(b) Apis dorsata

(c) Apis florea

(d) Apis melifera


(5) Triticale is obtained by

(a) Autopolyploidy

(b) Allopolyploidy

(c) Autoallopolyploidy

(d) none of above


(6) Mule is produced from a cross between

(a) female donkey and male horse

(b) female horse and male donkey

(c) bikaneri ewe and marino ram

(d) Bikaneri ram and marino ewe


(7) Which pituitary hormone plat significant role in MOET?

(a) LH

(b) FSH




(8) Milch breed refer to

(a) milk producing cow

(b) cattle used in agricultural work

(c) meat producing

(d) cattle bought from other country


(9) Medium used for callus culture contain

(a) 2,4-D

(b) IBA

(c) ethylene

(d) abscisic acid


(10) Pisciculture is

(a) fish culture

(b) cow rearing

(c) plant production

(d) pig rearing


(11) Pomato is obtained from

(a) potato only

(b) tomato only

(c) both potato and tomato

(d) hybridisation of peas and tomato


(12) Biofortification refers to breeding of crop with higher levels of

(a) vitamins

(b) minerals or proteins

(c) fats

(d) all of above


(13) Which of the following variety of rice is developed in India?

(a) Sonalika

(b) Pusa

(c) Kalyan

(d) Jaya


(14) The plants produced from tissue culture are

(a) genetically different

(b) genetically improved

(c) genetically similar

(d) seedless


(15) and hormone influences spawning in fishes

(a) FSH and LH

(b) FSH and testosterone

(c) Lh and Testosterone

(d) none of above


(16) Maize is resistant to stem borers due to

(a) high aspartic acid

(b) high nitrogen

(c) high sugar content

(d) high minerals


(17) Plant disease caused by fungi

(a) turnip mosaic

(b) red rot of sugarcane

(c) black rot of crucifers

(d) tobacco mosaic


(18) Inbreeding depression refers to

(a) reduced fertility

(b) improved fertility

(c) improved productivity

(d) improved disease resistance


(19) Dairy/poultry Farm Management requires

(1) superior breeds

(2) disease free breeds

(a) only (1)

(b) only (2)

(c) both (1) and (2)

(d) none


(20) Self pollination is favoured in hybrids

(a) to increase homozygosity

(b) to decrease homozygosity

(c) to increase disease resistance

(d) to increase yield



(a) MCQ


(1) b inbreeding

(2) a spirulina

(3) b virus free plant

(4) a Apis indica

(5) b Aliopolyploidy

(6) b female horse and male donkey

(7) c FSH

(8) a milk producing cow

(9) a 2,4-D

(10) a fish culture

(11) c both potato and tomato

(12) d all the above

(13) d Jaya

(14) c genetically similar

(15) a FSH and LH

(16) a High aspartic level

(17) b red rot of sugarcane

(18) a reduced fertility

(19) c both

(20) a to increase homozygosity






Plant breeding is the science of changing the traits of plants in order to produce

desirable characters.


It Improves the quality such as increased nutrition,improved flavour or great



Increase yield of crop


Increase tolerance of environmental pressures.


Resistance to viruses,fungi and bacteria.



Collection of variability


Evaluation and selection of parents




Selection and Testing of superior Recombinants


Testing ,Release and Commercialization of new cultivars.


In mid 1960s several high yielding varieties of rice and wheat are developed


Plant breeding techniques led to increase in the food production in the country.


Wheat :Sonalika and kalyan sona


Rice:Jaya and Ratna

Desirable variety of sugar was develop by crossing Saccharum barberi and Saccharum officinarum.


Millets:Hybrid maize,jowar and bajra.


Vheat-Himgiri-Resistance to leaf and stripe rust,hill bunt.


Brassica-Pusa swarnim-VWhite rust


Cauliflower —Pusa Shubhra ,Pusa Snowball K-1-Resistance to Black rot and

Curl blight black rot.


e Cowpea-Pusa Komal-Resistance to bacterial blight


e Chilli-Pusa Sadabahar —Resistance to chilly mosaic virus,Tobacco mosaic virus and Leaf curl.



Genetic variations are created through changes in base sequence within genes.

Creation of new character that are not found in parental type.


TO induce mutation artificially by use of chemicals or radiations.


Using the plant that has desirable character as a source of breeding.


In Mung bean —Resistance to yellow mosaic virus and powdery mildew induced by mutation.


IN Bhindi-Resistance to yellow mosaic virus


Brassica-Pusa Gaurav-Resistant to insect pest Aphids.


Flat bean-Pusa Sem 2,Pusa Sem 3-Resistant to Jassids,aphids and fruit borer.


Okra —Pusa Sawani ,Pusa A-4-Shoot and Fruit borer.




Breeding crops with higher levels of vitamins and minerals.


To improve protein content and quality


Oil content and quality


Vitamin content


Micronutrient and mineral content


Improved nutrition value




Protein derived from cells of microorganisms.


Used as food supplements for humans.


High protein and low fat content.



Any fragment of tissue from a plant is transferred to an artificial environment.


Totipotency-Capacity of plant to develop from the explant


Micropropagation-Method of producing thousands of plants through tissue culture





Fusion of somatic cells of two different species to produce a somatic hybrid

carrying gened from both parents.


Sexual fusion is absent.



Protoplast of tomato is fused with the protoplast of potato and results in new

hybrid variety combining characters of both i.e.pomato.


Not suitable for commercial utilisation.




1.What is Plant breeding?

2.Define germplasm collection?

3.Name the semi dwarf varieties of Rice and Wheat?

4.What is emasculation?

5.Which parents reproduce a mule?

6.What is meant by biofortification?

7.Name two diseases of poultry?

8.What is meant by the tem breed?

9.What is apiculture?

10.What is single cell protein?

11.What is the advantage of producing plants by micropropagation?

12.Define aquaculture?

13.Name the fungus used for the production of SCP?

14.Which is the oldest method of crop improvement?

15.Define inbreeding?

16.Name the alkaloid that prevents the formation of spindle apparatus during


17.Name the chemical used for doubling the chromosome number?

18.Name the two growth regulators commonly used in plant tissue culture?

19.Which part of plant is best suited for making virus free plants?

20.What is interspecific hybridisation?




1.Plant breeding is the genetic improvement of the crop in order to create a desired plant types that are better suited for cultivation and are disease resistant.

2.The entire collection of plants/seeds having all the diverse alleles for all

genes in a given crop.

3.Wheat-Sonalika ,Kalyan sona Rice-Jaya and Ratna

4.Emasculation is the removal of anthers from a bisexual flower.

5.A mule is a hybrid of a male donkey and the female horse.

6.Biofortification is the method of breeding crops with higher levels of vitamins ,minerals or higher fats or protein.

7.Ranikhet and tick fever.

8.A breed is related by descent and similar in most characters like general appearance,features and size.

9.Apiculture is the rearing,caring and management of honeybees for obtaining honey and wax.

10.Single cell protein is the process of using cells from microorganisms such as bacteria,yeast,algae and used as a source of food.

11.Large number of plants are obtained in very short duration.Plants formed

by micropropagation are identical.

12.It involves production of useful aquatic plants and animals such as fishes, prawns,shrimps by proper utilisation of small and large bodies of water.

13.Fusarium graminearum.

14.Selection is the oldest method of crop improvement.

15.When breeding is between the animals of same breed it is called inbreeding.

16.Colchicine is the alkaloid that prevents the formation of spindle apparatus during mitosis.

17.Colchicine is the chemical that is used for doubling the chromosome number.

18.2,4 dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and Benzylaminopurine.

19.Meristem(Apical and Axillary ) is free of virus .

20.It is the process of mating male and female animals of two different related species.






Production of sufficient food against ever increasing population is a challenging



Several biological methods are developed to increase food production.


Techniques like animal husbandry, apiculture, plant breeding have a major role in increasing food production.


Several new techniques like embryo transfer technology and tissue culture techniques are going to play a pivotal role in further enhancing food production.



Animal husbandry is the agricultural practice of breeding and raising livestock.


Animal husbandry deals with the care and breeding of livestock like buffaloes,

cows, pigs, horses, cattle, sheep, camels, goats etc.


 Extended form of animal husbandry is poultry farming and fisheries.


Fisheries include rearing, catching, selling, etc., of fish, molluscs (shell-fisn) and



Poultry farming deals with domesticated fowl (birds) used for food or for their



Dairy farm management


Dairying is the management of animals for milk and its products for human consumption.


Dairying deals with processes and systems that increase yield and improve quality of milk.


Important measures for improvement of dairy farm-


Selection of good breeds having high yielding potential.


The animals have to be housed well, should have adequate water and be maintained disease free.


Providing good quality and quantity of fodder.


Maintenance of hygienic environment.


Aregular visit to a veterinary doctor is mandatory.



Poultry is the class of domesticated fowl (birds) used for food or for their eggs.

Poultry include chicken and ducks, turkey and geese.


Important measures for improvement of poultry farm-


Selection of disease free and suitable breeds.


Proper and safe farm conditions


Proper feed and water


Maintenance of hygiene and proper care of health should be taken.

The process of creating a new breed with superior characters in the offspring is called animal breeding.

A group of animals related by descent and similar in most character like general

appearance, features, size and configuration is called a breed


Breeding is of two types-

1. Inbreeding

2. Outbreeding


When breeding is between animals of the same breed it is called inbreeding.


Inbreeding increases homozygosity.


Inbreeding exposes harmful recessive genes that are eliminated by selection


It also helps in accumulation of superior genes and elimination of less desirable genes.


Continued inbreeding usually reduces fertility and even productivity, which is

called inbreeding depression.


Out breeding programme is the solution to overcome in-breeding depression Crosses between different breeds are called outbreeding.


Out breeding is of three types-

1. Out crossing- Mating of animals within the same breed, but having no common ancestors on either side of their pedigree up to 4-6 generations is called outcrossing and the resulting offsprings are called out cross.


2. Cross- breeding— Mating of superior male of one breed and superior female of

another breed is called cross breeding. Desirable qualities of two breeds can be

combined by this process. Hisardale is a new breed of sheep developed in Punjab

by crossing Bikaneri ewes and Marino rams.


3. Interspecific hybridization- the process in which male and female of different

species of animals are mated is called interspecific hybridization.Example- mule, a hybrid of donkey and horse.



Bee keeping can also be termed as apiculture



The maintenance of hives of honey bees for the production of honey is called

bee keeping.



Honey produced by honey bees has high nutritive value.


Honey bee also produces bee wax which is widely used in the preparation of

cosmetics and polishes of various kinds.


There are species of honey bees which can be reared and the most common species is


Benefits of honey bees-


Bees are pollinators of many crop species such as Sunflower. Brassica, Apple

and Pear.


Keeping of bee hives increase pollination in crop fields and improve yield.


Honey bees are beneficial for crop yield and honey yield.


Requirements for successful bee keeping


Knowledge of the nature and habits of honey bees.


Selection of suitable location for keeping the bee hives.


Catching and hiving of swarms.


Management of beehives during different seasons.


Handling and collection of honey and bees wax.



Fisheries are also termed as pisciculture.


The industries which practice catching, processing or selling of fish, shellfish or


aquatic animals are called fisheries.


Catla,Rohu, Carp are common marine fishes.


Hilsa, Sardines, Mackerel and Pomfrets are fresh water fishes.


Aquaculture is the rearing, breeding of aquatic animals and aquatic plants.



Plant breeding is the manipulation of plant species in order to create desired

plant types that are better suited for cultivation, give better yields and are disease resistance.Plant breeding is done to-

Increase crop yield.


Improve quality.


Increase tolerance to environmental stresses.


Make the plants resistant to pathogens.


Increase tolerance to insect pest.Steps in plant breeding technique eCollection of genetic variability or germplasm


Collection and preservation of all the different wild species and relatives of the

cultivated species.


Evaluation of their characters.eThe entire collection having all the diverse alleles for all genes in a given crop is called germplasm collection.Evaluation and selection of parents eThe germplasm is evaluated to identify plants with desirable combination of



The selected plants are multiplied and used in hybridization.


Pure line is created wherever desirable and possible.Cross hybridization among the selected parents


Cross hybrisdisation of two selected parents by emasculation and bagging, to produce hybrids of combined character of both parents. For example- high protein

quality of one parent may need to be combined with disease resistant from anothe



Usually one in few hundred to a thousand crosses offspring’s shows desirable

combinations.Selection and testing of superior recombinants


Selection is done from the progeny of hybrids produced by cross hybridization.


Hybrids plants that are superior to both of the parents are selected.


Hybrids are self pollinated for several generations till they reach a state of

homozygosity.Testing, release and commercialization of new cultivars


eSelected pure lines are evaluated in the research field for their yield and other

agronomic traits of quality, disease resistance etc.


Testing is done in the fields of farmers at least for three generations.

eThe material is compared with best available local crop cultivar.



Wheat and rice

Due to the development of semi-dwarf varities of wheat and rice, rice production

went up to from 35 million to 89.5 million tones.Sonalika and Kalyansonaare the varieties of wheat which were introduced all over the wheat growing belt of India.

Semi- dwarf rice varites were derived from IR-8 from Philippines and Taichung

Native-1 from Taiwan.Better yielding semi dwarf varitiesJaya and Ratna were developed later in India.

Sugarcane Saccharum barberiwas originally grown in North India but had poor sugar content and yield.Saccharum officinarumwas tropical cane grown in South India, had thicker stems and higher sugar content, but did not grow well in North.

Both the species were successfully crossed to get sugarcane varieties combining

the desirable qualities of high yield, thick stems, high sugar and ability to grow in

the all sugar cane areas of North India.





Q1. Explain in brief the role of animal husbandry in human welfare.

Q.2. If your family owned a dairy farm, what measures would you undertake

to improve the quality and quantity of milk production ?

Q.3. What is meant by the term ‘breed ?

q.4What are the objectives of animal breeding ?

Q.5. Name the methods employed in animal breeding. According to you

which of the methods is best ?Why?

Q.6 What is apiculture ? How is it important in our lives?

Q.7 Discuss the role of fishery in enhancement of food production.

Q.8 Briefly describe various steps involved in plant breeding.

Q.9 State a difference between aquaculture and pisciculture.

Q.10Why and how does beehive help in enhancing the yield?




1. Animal husbandry plays a very important role in human welfare by providing us milk, eggs, meat, wool, silk, honey, wax, hides, etc. Anumbe of animals like horse, camel, ass carry men and materials.Rearing of animals provides useful employment to many persons.


2. Following measures are to be undertaken to improve the quality and quantity of milk production.

(i) There should be selection of good breed.

(ii) Cattle shed should be spacious, roofed and airy.

(iii) Cattle should be regularly brushed, massaged and cleaned.

(iV) Proper sanitation measures are required in the cattle shed.

3. Breed. A breed is a group of animals of the same species related by descent and are similar in most of their characteristics.


4. Objectives of animal breeding. (i)

Increasing the quantity of yield. (ii)

Improving the quality of the products. (iii) Resistance to various diseases.


5. Animal breeding is of the following types. (1) Inbreeding, (2) Out breeding.

Out breeding is of three types : (i) Out crossing, (ii) Cross breeding and

(iii) Interspecific hybridisation. Out of these methods cross-breeding is best because it allows the desirable qualities of two different breeds.


6. Apiculture (bee keeping) is the rearing, caring and management of honey bees for obtaining honey and wax. Honey is a food substance of high nutritive value and it is also medically important. Bee wax is used in the preparation of cosmetics and polishes.


7. Fishery industry has increased huge amount of food products, therefore,it is called the Blue Revolution. It is the main source of livelihood in coastal areas.


8. Following steps are involved in plant breeding. (i) Collection of germplas

(ii) Evaluation and selection of parents. (ii) Cross hybridisation among the

selected parents. (iv) Selection and testing of superior recombinants. (v)Testing release and commercialisation of new cultivars.


9. Pisciculture is the fish farming done in isolated water bodies whereas culturing of aquatic animals and plants in freshwater is termed as aquaculture.


10. When cultivated in the fields of Brassica, apple, pear and sunflower,Beehives causes an increase in the pollination efficiency of flowering plants and hence improves the yield.






Plant Breeding has been found to be successful to develop insect resistant plants.


These attacked insects cause large scale damaged to crop plants.


To avoid this problem, plants show insects and pest resistance mechanisms.

For Example :

1) Hairy leaves in several plants are related with resistance to insect pests.This Character is shown by cotton plant & wheat plant.

2) In wheat plant, solid stems lead to non preference by stem sawfly.

3) High aspartic acid, low nitrogen & sugar content in maize leads to resistance to maize stem borers.




People in the world do not have adequate food to meet their daily food

and nutritional requirements.



It is the technique of producing crops with higher contents of vitamins,minerals, proteins and healthy fats by plant breeding programmers so as to improve the public health.



Atals - 66 is improved variety of wheat with high protein content.


IARI (Indian Agriculture Research Institute), New Delhi developed Vitamin A enriched carrots, Spinach, Pumpkin.


lron enriched variety of rice is also developed.



SCP is one of the sources of Protein and can meet the requirement for the nutrition of ever-increasing human & animal population.


SCP refers to any microbial biomass produced by Uni and multicellular microorganisms and can be used for food or feed additives.


Process of Production of SCP


SCP is a protein rich powder, but with low fat content.


To get SCP, microbes are grown on an industrial scale.


Blue green algae like spirulina are a good source of nutrients and can be grown easily on waste water from sewage, patato processing plant,animal manure and straw molasses.


The bacteria Methylophilus methylophilus can produce 25 tonnes of protein due to its high growth rate and biomass production.


These microbes are used as medium for production of SCP.


Proper aeration and cooling of the medium is done.


The SCP is recovered from the medium by a variety of methods like filtration or centrifugation.


Advantages of SCP

1. SCP's are good sources of B-complex vitamins.

2. Its production reduces environmental pollution.

3. These can be produced throughout the year.

4. Substrate used may be cheaper or even waste.





Tissue culture is the process of developing the whole plant from a part of the plant.


The capacity of an explant (Part of the plant) or a cell to regenerate the

whole plant is known as Totipotency


The first evidence of cellular toti potency was given by F.C. Steward in 1950.


It is aimed to increase the rate of producing new plants and also to

provide an efficient system of crop improvement.



A Balanced nutrient medium containing both inorganic macro nutrients & micro nutrients.


Agar is added to solidify the medium.


Ph of culture medium is kept between 5 to 5.8


Aseptic conditions are maintained to prevent contamination and dead micro organism.



1. Micro propagation: Is the method of producing large number of new plants from a stock plant in very short duration.


New plants are genetically similar to parent plant and also similar to one another. So known as Soma clones.


For Example plant like Tamato, Banana, Apple etc. have been produced on commercial scale from this method.


2. The tissue culture method is also useful in getting rid of disease infections. The apical and axillary meristem is free from a viral infection,which can be removed and grown in vitro to get a healthy plant. So it is also known as Meristem Culture.


3. Meristems of Banana, Patato and sugarcane have been cultured successfully.



Itis the process of fusing naked protoplasts of cells of two different varieties of plant having desirable traits.


The plant grown by this method are known as somatic hybrids.Example: Protoplast of Tamato is fused with that of Patato and they

are grown to form new hybrid plants known as Pomato.


It is useful technique of Investigating of possible recombination

within extra chromosomal genomes.



Short Answer Type Questions


Q1. What do you understand by crop improvement?

Q2. What is meant by Biofortification?

Q3. What is the major advantage of producing plants by

Micropropagation Method?

Q4. What are the various components of medium used for

propagation of an explant invtro?

Q5. Why are plants obtained from protoplast culture called Somatic hy brids?

Q6. Why are protein synthesized from Spirulina called SCP?

Q7. Discuss the importance of testing of new plants varieties in a geopraphically vast country like India.

Q8. Write any to advantages of Tissue culture.

Q9. Write to advantages of Disease resistant varieties in plant breeding.

Q10. Describe the process of Somatic Hybridization.



1. The technique of combining the desired characteristics in one plant and then multiplying such individual to the extent that it is easily available for common use to farmers is Known as crop improvement.


2. Biofortification is the process of breeding of crops with higher level of vitamins and minerals or higher proteins and healthy fats.


3. For rapid clonal multiplication and for production of virus free plant.


4. Nutrient medium must provide a carbon source like sucrose and also in organic salts vitamins amino acid and various growth

regulators like oxygen at cytokinin.


5 .Plants obtained from protoplast culture known as somatic hybrids because these are formed due to fusion of genetically

different somatic cells.


6 Spirulina is used to form protein rich cell biomass. Single cell protein refers to any microbial biomass used as food or feed

additives that contain 45% of protein


7. In India climatic conditions different in different geographical areas. Hybrid varieties developed are tested for their constant performance for at least three years before released


8(i). A large number of plants can be grown in a short period of time.

(ii) Useful where sexual reproduction is not possible.


9.(i)It enhances crop yield by reducing the chances of diseases.

(ii) It reduces use of fungicides, bactericides and pesticides which reduces the chances of environmental degradation.


10. Somatic hybrid are formed when isolated naked protoplast from two different varieties after digesting their cell walls are

fused. This process is known as Somatic Hybridization.



Choose the correct option: (one mark each)


(1) Which pituitary hormone play significant role in MOET?

(a) LH

(b) FSH




(2) Which of the following variety of rice is developed in India?

(a) Sonalika

(b) Pusa

(c) Kalyan

(d) Jaya


(3) Inbreeding depression refers to

(a) reduced fertility

(b) improved fertility

(c) improved productivity

(d) improved disease resistance


(4) Which blue-green algae is used in production of SCP?

(a) Spirulina

(b) methylophilus

(c) candida

(d) triticale


(5) Biofortification refers to breeding of crop with higher levels of

(a) vitamins

(b) minerals or proteins

(c) fats

(d) all of above


Answer the following questions in one line: (one mark each)


(6) What are mutagens? Give one example.

(7) Define micropropagation.

(8) What is the aim of animal breeding?

(9) Name the enzyme commonly used to dissolve the bacterial cell wall.

(10) What is golden rice?


Attempt all questions: (2 marks each)


(11) Differentiate between aquaculture and pisciculture.

(12) What is apiculture? How is it important in our lives?

(13) Name the methods employed in animal breeding. Which methods is best? Why?

(14) What is plant tissue culture? Write its application.

(15) Write two advantages of high yielding varieties of crops.


Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production