Saturday 27 August 2022

Chapter 4th (Current Trends in Information Technology)


 Chapter 4th (Current Trends in Information Technology)




We live in the “information world,” sc information technology has become important part of our daily life. Information technology has made the whole earth as village. It has given rise to a global economy by connecting different economies of the world.

Information Technology (IT) has impacted the lives of all of us. The field of information technology has gone a long way in the past few years. From morning to night we use many

products, devices and features based on information technology. Today information technology is being used inside all sectors.


In the past, knowledge about information technology was known to very few people, as IT was not expanded at that time. In most places, the collection and exchange of information was done without computers. Only a few people knew about Information Technology, who worked in a large organization, where a large amount of data had to be stored and computers were used for it.


But recently, information technology has spread a lot, with the help of computers and the Internet. New discoveries based on information technology are being invented, with which information technology is constantly advancing.



Information Technology (IT) is a technique under which computers or other physical devices (hardware, software) are used to create, process, secure and exchange electronic data.


In other words, Information Technology is used for the study, understanding, planning,design, construction, testing, distribution, support and operations of software, computers and computer related systems that exist for the purpose of data, information and knowledge processing.


In simple words, in the Information Technology (IT), we study and use systems like computer and telecommunication devices to store, retrieve and exchange information.

Information Technology is the whole field in which computer and technology related work is done within industry, business or in any organization.

In simple terms, we can say that the use of computer-based systems, networking systems and other electronic devices to facilitate the transfer of information and data is known as IT




Information technology is used in each and every field of human life. Few applications of Information Technology are given below:


Business : Technology has changed every aspect of business in a big way. Businesses can utilize information technology through the use of computers and different software to mm their operations in a smoother fashion.

To be more specific, here are a few ways in which information technology has affected business. Either small or big business, they will need to scale out a plan to utilize opportunities brought by "Information Technology". Businesses use IT in four ways to support :-

{1} Information-processing tasks

(2) Decision making

(3) Shared Information through Decentralized Computing and

(4) Innovation


Classroom Education : Education is one of the frontiers of technology and is

gtowing with technology every day. It's important that education be able to keep up with the progress happening in technology by reaching students in a way that adequately helps them to prepare for the future. This includes the use of gadgets in teaching, such as computers, smart electronic boards, mobile phones, and tablets, as

well as the use of the intemet as a medium of learning.


Online Education : Unlike in the past when education was tied to specific

boundaries, now the education sector has changed. With the introduction of online education services, students can learn from anywhere using the internet; this has helped in spreading of essential education materials to all students across the globe.Online education is also being enhanced by the creation of a mobile application

which enables students to access education material via their mobile phones.


Finance : The discovery of computers has transformed the financial industry and how business deals are transacted. It is possible for accountants to keep large amounts of data, conduct calculations and manage financial transactions all from a computer. With an increasing number of transactions happening online, it is important

that financial and security institutions work together to make the internet a safe place.


Health : With improvements in information technology, it is becoming easier to reform the health sector. This makes it possible for timely care to be delivered, as well as for costs to be reduced. Latest information on medical science is readily accessible through internet and handheld devices like personal digital assistants,

palmtops, and other.Healthcare facilities, particularly hospitals, are using social media to establish

contact with patients, answer questions about practices, launch public awareness campaigns, and perform community outreach. Nurses and doctors use hand-held computers to record a patient's medical history and check that they are administering the correct treatment. Results of lab tests, records of vital signs, and medicine orders are all electronically put into a main database that can be referred later.


Media : Media field has been totally upgraded and transformed by the IT. Now,media can cover news better and can distribute it for mass consumption on a larger scale. Apart from TV and radio, online websites have been launched to keep people up to date.


Transport : Transport sector is also under influence of information technology.New inventions and innovations have upgraded the transport industry to a great extent. Roadways, railways, airways, waterways all are revolutionized. It becomes easy to get information about availability of seats, timings etc. with the help of



Telecommuanication : The progress of information technology has opened the

doors to many new services in the field of telecommunications. The computer itself is connected to the telephone network to exchange communication through the channel of e-mail. Radio-TV transmission and World Wide Web has also been made possible. Telephone and internet services are brought together in mobile internet.


Entertainment : Computer is now an important tool in film, television and

advertisement. The computer allows us innumerable options to handle pictures.


Defence : Information Technology is the main tool which helps in developing

missiles and other equipment in the defence system. Designing and the maintenance are possible only through IT. IT fills the communication gap between the soldiers and commanders through the satellites. Construction of weapons and controlling their function becomes easy using computers.



Information technology has experienced an extraordinary growth over the last few years,So we need to stay on top of emerging trends and how they operate.

The IT industry never stands still. This rapid, ever-changing stream is full of technologies,tools, software frameworks and endless ideas. The list of current technology trends can be

infinite. In this chapter, we would like to focus on some of the top current information technology trends.


4.4.1 Mobile Internet

Mobile internet is an internet connection usually through 2G or 3G or 4G mobile phone networks. This

is different from ADSL (phone line) or cable (fibre-optic) broadband. Thus we can say that Mobile internet

uses mobile phone. No routers, cables or telephone lines are needed.

Mobile intemet gives us access to our favourite social communities like Facebook, WhatsApp etc.Besides these, we can also access to news, sports, and

entertainment using internet mobile. Some common names of mobile internet technologies are: 2G,3G,4G, HSPA (High Speed Packet Access),LTE (Long Term Evolution often called 4G LTE), XLTE, VoLTE (voice Long Term Evolution)



Advantages of Mobile Internet :

Meet people ; The use of social media apps like WhatsApp, Facebook, Twitter,

and Instagram has made it easy to find and meet peoples.


Knowing Location : With the mobile internet, we can know our location.


Fast ; Mobile internet enable quick access to information on the web.


Up to Date ; With Mobile internet we stay updated.


4.4.2 Wi-Fi Technology

Full form of Wi-Fi is Wireless Fidelity. Wi-Fi is a technology that provides network connectivity using a

radio wave for wireless high-speed Internet and network comnections.

Wi-Fi is a network facility through which we can connect our computer, smartphone, laptop or any other

device with internet wirelessly, but its area is fixed.We can take advantage of this only within that area.

An adapter for a Wi-Fi connection can be made a hotspot that is usually a wireless router and is connected

to other devices such as laptops, mobiles, game consoles, or PCs for Internet access.


Advantages of Wi-Fi:

We can save the cost of cables and can access intemet wirelessly.


We can connect to any Wi-Fi network nearby us through hotspot.


4.4.3 Bluetooth technology

Bluetocth is a wireless LAN technology, all types of media files can be transferred with Bluetooth. This technology is used to exchange information between devices such as

phones, laptops, personal computers,printers, digital cameras, mobile phones,etc. within a short distance.


Advantages of Bluetooth Technology:

It avoids interference from other wireless devices.


It has lower power consumption.


Bluetooth devices are available at very cheap cost.


No line of sight needed hence can connect through any obstacles.


The technology is adopted in many products such as head set, in car system, printer,web cam, GPS system, keyboard and mouse.


4.4.4 E-Commerce

Electronic commerce is a way of doing

business using Internet. The purchase or sale of goods or services under e-commerce is through electronic systems such as the Internet.It involves electronically transferring data

or money between two or more parties. Some examples of e-commerce are as follows: Online Shopping, Electronic Payments, Online Auctions,Internet Banking, Online Ticketing etc.


Advantages of E-Commerce:

E-commerce improves the brand image of the company.


E-commerce helps the organization to provide better customer services.


E-commerce helps in simplifying business processes and making them fast and efficient.


E-commerce greatly reduces paper work.


4.4.5 M-Commerce Technology

M-commerce, also known as mobile commerce, M-commerce is known as the next generation of e-commerce. M-commerce provides users with online access to the internet anywhere without the need of a PC or laptop anywhere.


M-commerce is the purchase and sale of

goods and services through cellular telephone and wireless digital handheld devices such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) or tablets.


Advantages of M Commerce:

It provides a convenient, secure and

easy communication and distribution



It reduces transaction and order

Processing costs.


It provides wide reach as most people

use cell phones.


It simplifies all business processes.


4.4.6 GPS Technology

GPS stands for Global Positioning System by which anyone can always obtain the position information anywhere in the world. It also helps us to search the nearby organizations, restaurants, hotels and gas stations and is very useful for a new place etc. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is made possible by a group of satellites in Earth's orbit.


Advantages of GPS Technology :

Real Time Tracking : Most GPS Tracking devices are enabled with real-time

monitoring. Location of the vehicles is tracked on the map as it moves from point to point.


Trip History : We can track all the trips made by the vehicle graphically on the map. Information such as kilometers traveled, stoppages, idling, engine time and average speed is displayed.


Alerts : Using vehicle tracking system features like over speeding alert, start of day alert, route deviation alert and excessive stoppage alert.


Anytime Anywhere Access ; The easy anytime, anywhere access with user friendly app keeps we abreast with our vehicles movement in real time no matter where we are.


Geo Fencing : Geo-fencing takes alert customization to the next level. We can

create geographical boundaries called Geo fences on the map around a landmark.


Easy to use, user friendly interface : A simple and intuitive user interface provides powerful features like group-wise access without the need for multiple accounts.


4.4.7 Android Technology

Android is a great operating system, the Android operating system is a mobile

 operating system that was developed by Open Handset Alliance and later owned by Google to be primarily used for touchscreen devices, cell

phones, and tablets. Android has proved to be a very good platform for mobile devices. Android features make it better than any other platforms.


Advantages of Android Technology :

Support different media platform that Mp3, Mp4 etc.


It supports various technologies such as camera, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, speech, etc.




Easy Access


It is Platform-independent. It means it supports Windows, Mac, and Linux platforms.


4.4.8 Virtual Reality

Virtual Reality is a computer technology that is used to create a fantasy world that makes us

feel like we are in that world. Virtual reality (VR) means experiencing things through our computer that do not really exist.Virtual Reality is a technique in which we experience being in the world generated by the computer when we watch any 3D movie so that we feel as if everything that is happening in front of us is in reality. It is our imagination, but actually it does not happen.


Advantages of Virtual Reality

Virtual reality has made viewing technology more enjoyable than reading.


Doctors take advantage of VR technology to learn about new medical symptoms.


Virtual reality creates a realistic world.


Virtual reality makes education easier,


The use of VR gives the user a great experience.


4.4.9 Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology, in the context of computer science, is a type of engineering geared toward building electronic components and devices measured in nano-meters, which are

extremely tiny in size and structure


Nanotechnology is an area where nanoparticles (microscopic materials) are practiced and their use is found in a diverse field. Nanotechnology is present in almost all fields, Such as

Nanotechnology in computer science, chemistry, biology, physics, materials science and engineering etc. for example the processor that is in our Smartphone is an invention of



Advantages of Nanotechnology:

Faster and smaller non-silicon-based chipsets, memory, and processors


New-science computers based on Quantum Computing.


Advanced microscopy and manufacturing systems.


Faster and smaller telecom switches, including optical switches.


4.4.10 5G Technology

5G is the next generation wireless technology (after 3G, 4G). It is the latest generation of cellular mobile communications. 5G will elevate the mobile network to not only interconnect

people, but also interconnect and control machines, objects, and devices. 5G is much better than 4G, 3G and 2G technology. 5G can be up to 100 times faster than 4G. Its internet speed

will be more than 20 Gbps so that large data can be easily downloaded and uploaded. With this,HD Movie can be downloaded in 1 minute.


Advantages of 5G:

5G network will provide high speed internet connection. 5G will provide the most efficient uploading and downloading speed


Villages and Cities can be made smart through network connectivity.


It will introduce VR(Virtual Reality) and AR (Augmented Reality) in smartphone sector.


Viewing space, galaxy and other planets will be very easy.


Natural disasters like earthquakes can be detected in advance.


4.4.11 Internet of Things (IoT) Technology The Internet of Things or (loT) is an area of technology focuses on making human life more simplified and comfortable. It is a network of interconnected digital devices, machines,objects etc. provided with unique identifiers (UID) and the ability to connect, collect and

exchange data over a wired and wireless network, with little or no human-to-human or human-to-computer intervention. Some uses of IoT are everyday objects like A.C, refrigerators,washing machines, TVs, motor-starters, Smart Homes, smart cities, Connected Car etc.


Advantages of IoT:

Minimize Human Effort : As the devices of IoT interact and communicate with

each other and do lot of task for us, then they minimize the human effort.


Improve Security : Now, if we have a system that all these things are interconnected then we can make the system more secure and efficient.


Save Time ; As it reduces the human effort then it definitely saves our time. Time is the primary factor which can save through IoT platform.


Useful In Monitoring : It provides an advantage of knowing things in advance. So it makes efficient management.


Efficient Resource Utilization : IOT increase the efficient resource utilization.


Stay Connected : We and our family members, home devices, camera etc. can

always be in the network. We can virtually stay connected.


Efficient usage of electricity and energy : If our home appliances can operate by themselves, electricity is utilized in an efficient way.


4.4.12 Multimedia Technology

It refers to any type of technology that can be used in the creation or display of multimedia content, which usually consists of combinations of images and audio in a single  pplication.Multimedia technology includes interactive, computer-based applications that allow people to

communicate ideas and information with digital and print elements. Professionals in this field

use computer software to develop and manage online graphics and content.


Advantages of Multimedia technology:

Increased learning effectiveness.


Gains and holds attention.


More appealing.


Reduces training cost.


Easy to use.


Provides high quality of presentations






Realistic Approach.


Wide Variety of Formats


4.4.13 Cloud Computing

It provides us means by which we can access the applications as utilities over the internet.It allows us to create, configure, and customize the applications online. Some types of cloud computing technologies are:


Cloud printing connects digital devices like smartphones, laptops, and tablets, and workstations with printer stations. Cloud printing apps are available for smartphones and tablets that work with almost any printer.


Cloud storage is a way of saving digital things online; allowing we to protect valuable data from issues and problems that effect things like flash drives, discs,etc. cloud storage enables applications to upload data to a network of remote,connected servers. Applications can then maintain that data and access it from anywhere.


Advantages of Cloud Storage:

Data accessibility from any part of the world.


It increases work efficiency.


Public file sharing


Reduces costs of operations in the longer run.


Remote data backups as per our own convenience.


It reduces the costs to setup the disaster recovery and backup units.


Disadvantages of Cloud Storage:

Increased usage of bandwidth to access the data that increases the costs of operations a bit.


If our internet connection is not having a great speed, we might not be able to access the datz.


Has security and privacy issues


Higher Internet Utilization.


Lack of total control because data is held offsite by a company we do not have direct control on it.


1. Information Technology (IT) is an area under which computers or other physical devices (hardware, software) are used to create, process, secure and exchange electronic data.


2. Businesses use IT in four ways to support (1) information-processing tasks, (2) decision making, (3) shared information through decentralized computing and (4) innovation.


3. Full form of Wi-Fi is - Wireless Fidelity.


4. The Bluetooth is used for voice and data transfer.


5. E-Commerce involves electronically transferring data or money between two or more patties.


6. M-commerce is the purchase and sale of goods and services through cellular telephone and wireless digital handheld devices such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) or tablets.


7. GPS is the full form Global Positioning System.


8. Android operating system is a mobile operating system.


9. Cloud computing provides us means by which we can access the applications as utilities over the intemet.


10. Virtual reality (VR) means experiencing things through our computer that do not really exist.


11, Nanotechnology in computer science, chemistry, biology, physics, materials science and engineering etc.

12, 5G will elevate the mobile network to not only interconnect people, but also interconnect

and control machines, objects, and devices.



1. Multiple Choice Questions:


1.Information Technology (IT) is an area under which computers or other physical devices (hardware, software) are used to create, ___, secure and exchange electronic data.

a. Access

b. = process

c. define

d. save




2. With the introduction of online education services, students can learn from anywhere using the

a. Internet

b. electricity

c. 5G Technology

d. email


3. Android operating system is a________—s operating system.

a. Computer

b. Mobile

c. Technology

d. ‘Virtual reality


IV. Cloud computing is a kind of based computing.

a. Big-data

b. IcT

c.  Intemet

d. Bluetooth


2, Write the Full form of following


2 VR

3 IloT

4. IT

5. GPS



3. Short Answer Type Questions. (Write the answers in 4-5 lines)

1 ~——- What is Information Technology?

2. Give name of any four current trends in Information Technology.

3 Define Bluetooth Technology.

4. Define GPS Technology.

5. Define Multimedia Technology.

6. Define 5G Technology.



5. Long Answer Type Questions. (Write the answers in 10-15 lines)

1  What is Information Technology? Describe the various applications of Information Technology?

2. Describe Android Technology with its advantages.

3 Write short Notes on: Nano Technology and Wi-Fi.

4 Describe Virtual Reality with its advantages.

5. Describe Internet of Things (IoT) with its advantages.