Saturday 27 August 2022

Chapter 5th (Artificial Intelligence and Expert System)


 Chapter 5th (Artificial Intelligence and Expert System)





In this chapter we are going to study the concept of AI. It is the branch of Computer Science in which intelligent machines are created that work like humans. A.I refers to a software technology that makes a robot or a computer act and thinks like a human. The term AI was first coined by an American Computer Scientist named "John McCarthy" in 1956 at the Denmark Conference. He is also known as the father of A.L



Artificial intelligence refers to the intellectual ability developed in an artificial way. The field of Artificial Intelligence (AI systems) encompasses computer science, natural language

processing, math, psychology, neuroscience, data science, machine learning and many other disciplines,


Artificial intelligence is coined from two different words:

Artificial + Intelligence

Artificial is said to be manmade.


Intelligence is the capacity of mind to understand principles, truth, facts or meanings,to acquire knowledge, and apply it to practice. It's the ability to learn and comprehend.


Artificial intelligence is therefore machines created by man to make life easy and comfortable. These are computer programs or machines that help to think and learn.


Examples of AI are : spam filters in email accounts, predictive text on Google site, smart cars and drones system, Alexa.


In other words AI could be summarized as follows:

It creates a computer system or a robotic system, which is attempted to run based on the same logic on which the human brain works.


According to John McCarthy, it is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs, that is, the intelligence displayed by machines.


It studies about how the human brain thinks and leams while solving a problem,how it makes decisions and how it works.


During the 1940s many scientists started to work upon the possibility of creation of an attificial brain. In 1950 Alan Mathison Turing, a  mathematician, published a paper on the

possibility of creating the machines who can think. After that, artificial intelligence becomes key area of interest for research work.



There are various types of artificial intelligence. Based upon the capabilities and the functionality of AI it can be categorize into mainly two types :- Type-1 and Type-2 which are

further divided into subtypes.Following is the diagram which shows the types of artificial intelligence.


5.3.1 Type-1

Type -1 of the artificial intelligence is based upon the capabilities in comparison with the human being. Level of intelligence of a digital computer or machine is compared with the level

of the normal human being. So based on this parameter artificial intelligence of Type-1 can be further classified into three following subtypes-

Narrow AI

General AI

Strong AI


So we study the above mentioned subtypes of AI one by one as following:

Narrow Artificial Intelligence (NAD) : It is a type of artificial intelligence in which specific dedicated tasks are performed with intelligence. It focuses on single set of abilities and

performs that task. These systems cannot perform anything beyond there defined fields. This is the reason that narrow AI is also known as Weak AI.


Example ; Apple Siri is a good example of narrow artificial intelligence. It is software which takes our commands in our voice and gives suitable answer after analyzing it. Some other examples are computers playing chess game and the image recognition. Another good

example is ‘video recommendation system’ of YouTube.


(4) General Artificial Intelligence (GAD) : In this type of artificial intelligence computer system can perform any generalized task given just like human beings. It has equal efficiency as of human. It is more complex as compared to narrow Al. However there is no such general

AI system still exist which can perform similar tasks to human.


(i) Strong Artificial Intelligence (SAD) : It is an outcome of the general artificial intelligence, It is the level of AI in which the computer systems surpass human beings in

intelligence. They can perform any task better than human. This is also known as Super attificial intelligence. These have the following properties like

Ability to think.

Ability to reason,

Ability to solve a puzzle.

Make plans and judgments.

Ability to leam, communicate itself.


However it is a hypothetical concept. Still there is lot of work to do in this area. It may be possible in the near future.


So from the above mentioned three subtypes from TYPE-1 of artificial intelligence, we can summarize the key points as follows-

NAI - performs one specific task.

GAI- same ability as human.

SAI - more ability than human.


5.3.2 Type-2

Type -2 of the artificial intelligence is totally based upon the functionality and capability in comparison to the human beings. So TYPE-2 AI is classified into the following four

categories described below-

Reactive machines

Limited Memory

Theory of Mind



(i) Reactive Machines : Reactive machines are basic in that they do not store ‘memories’ or use past

experiences to determine future actions. They simply perceive the world and react to it. IBM's Deep Blue,

which defeated chess grandmaster Kasporov, is a reactive machine that sees the pieces on a chess board

and reacts to them. So they only focus on the completion of current task in a best possible way.Because they have no memory so they cannot use previous data for future tasks. So they behave in the

same manner all the time when the same situation comes.


Example ; Deep Blue System of IBM. Similarly Google's AlphaGo is another example of reactive machines.


(i)Limited Memory Machine : Limited

Memory machines can retain data for a short period of time, While they can use this data for a specific

period of time, they cannot add it to a library of their experiences. Many self-driving cars use Limited


(ii)Memory technology: they store data such as the recent speed of nearby cars, the distance of such cars, the speed limit, and other information that can help them to navigate on the roads, Example: Self Driving car.


(iii)Theory of Mind : The idea in this artificial intelligence type is to understand the emotions, beliefs

of people and react according to these. As the name of this AI is "theory of mind", it is a concept of understanding the behavior of human beings and then

reacting to it. This is related to human psychology.However no such machine is completely developed.

Researchers are making huge efforts for the making of these types of machines.


(iv) Self-Awareness : These machines are a concept of future and have not been developed yet. These are on theoretical side and are the future of the artificial intelligence. These

machines will have the properties of



Super intelligent



This type of AI can be considered as the further advanced extension of the Theory of mind AI. This concept may be possible in near future. However no such super intelligent self-aware

machine or system is present till now.



Artificial Intelligence plays a vital role now-a-days. It is almost used in every comer of latest technology. Many new type of automatic computer systems replaced human beings and thus reduced their workload. AI provides a new concept to this world that how we can achieve the impossible goals with very ease. Many revolutionary innovations are presented in front of world due the existence of AL This has a very important role in today's human life and is going to increase in upcoming time. Areas of importance of Al's are several and here we are going to

discuss some of them as below-


(1) Game Playing : AI plays an important role in strategic games such as chess, poker, tic-tac-toe, etc. where the machine can think of a large number of possible positions.

As we know a Deep Blue game of chess was made by IBM and after up gradation it even beat the world chess champions. Today there are number of latest games which are played by

the user are due to the AI.


(2) Voice Recognition : This technique transforms the words spoken by the user into text form. It is also known as speech recognition. For examples advertisements of Google and other

companies that ask you to speak on the mobile and it will answer you. Apple's Siri is also an

example of speech recognition as it gives the answers to the questions of the user in voice form.


(3) Understanding the Natural Language : AI is best used in the area of natural language processing(NLP).The language which human speaks is known as natural language like Punjabi, Hindi, English, French etc. So the interaction process between computers and

human is known as NLP. The main works of natural language processing is text translation;gtammatical analysis and speech recognitions.


Some examples of NLP are : Dragon Dictation, Evemote for Android, Spell check,Autocomplete, Voice text messaging, Spam filters,related keywords on search engines, Alexa,

or Google Assistant


(4) Computer Vision & analysis : AI has an important role in computer vision. Computer vision stands for representing three dimensional (3D) real world information into very understandable form just like human's eye do. Computer vision helps in pattern recognition. It

automatically extracts information from the images and provides crucial information. Al's ability to read both medical images and medical records could save the vast amount of time

that radiologists and cardiologists spend diagnosing disease.



Artificial intelligence AI has a huge impact on many of the fields and some of them are mentioned below:-


(i) Intrusion Detection System : IDS system can be developed by using artificial Intelligence. It is type of security software designed to automatically alert administration when

someone or something is trying to violate the security system and perform a malicious activity that can damage the data or system. Example of IDS is firewall that can block unauthorized

sites, email services against spam, Network Intrusion Detection System


ii) Gaming : It plays an important role in strategic games like chess, tic-tac-toe etc. Here the machine should be able to think of multiple possible steps based on heuristic knowledge.


(iii) Natural Language Processing : Able to communicate with the computers that understand human used natural language.


(iv) Machine Learning : Machine leaming is an application of artificial intelligence (AI)that provides systems the ability to automatically learn and improve from experience without

being explicitly programmed. Machine learning focuses on the development of computer programs that can access data and use it leam for themselves. The process of learning begins with observations or data, such as direct experience, or instruction. The primary aim of machine learning is to allow the computers learn automatically without human intervention or assistance and adjust actions accordingly.


(v) Expert Systems : There are a few applications which incorporate machine, programming,and some special data to confer thinking and prompting. They give clarification and exhortation

to the users.


(vi) Vision Systems : These types of systems are able to understand, interpret and grasp visual input on the computer, Ex: A spying plane or drone takes pictures, which are utilized to

make sense of spatial data or guide of the zones and areas.


(vii) Speech Recognition ; You will find some systems which are able to understand the language which is used by humans and talk to them. They can even understand the slang,background noise, accent etc.


(viii) Handwriting Recognition : This special software will be able to read the text written either by a pen or stylus on paper or screen respectively. It also understands the letter

shapes and will convert it into editable text.


(ix) Intelligent Robots : Robots are one of the best creations by humans, They can do multiple tasks within no time. Though they cannot be alternate to humans but are very efficient

when doing any tasks. The best part about these systems is that they are adaptable to the  efvironment around them.



Some of the common goals of AI are given below:


AT is used to develop reasoning and problem-solving skills.


Al is used for easy representation of knowledge.


AT is used to develop intelligent machines.


AT is used to work with sensors (take input from sensors) and react accordingly.


AT is used to improve productivity, efficiency and accuracy.



5.7.1 Pros of Artificial Intelligence

Here are the advantages of using Artificial Intelligence (AD).


iIt Is Cost-Effective : Unlike humans, robots and machines do not have to get paid every month for the work they do. Hence, it helps to reduce and to control the cost by using artificial intelligence.


ii) They Don't Take Rest : machines and robots can perform lengthy and important tasks in a more effective manner. Unlike humans, machines don't need to rest or take a break. They

don't need to eat or sleep like us and never fell ill or take leaves.


(iii) It Enhances Efficiency : Artificial intelligence provides work efficiency. Machine would be able to perform even the most complex tasks without any error.


(iv) Low Error Rate : In AI we have a low error rate as compared to humans, if it is coded properly.


(v) Work in hostile Environment : It can work in even the most hostile environments,thus able to complete dangerous tasks, explore in space, and endure problems that would injure

or kill us, The A.I robots are used even in mining and digging fuels that would otherwise be hostile for humans.


(vi) Good Assistants ; It is very good at prediction as in a smart phone it can easily predict what a user will type, ask, search, and do. They can easily act as assistants and direct various actions.


(vii) Make Repetitive task easier : It can perform repetitive task in easy manner whereas human get bored in doing


(viii) Machines Don't Have Emotions : Since machines don't have emotions, there are no chances of any emotional barriers getting in the way of the workplace. Nothing is going to

affect their performance.



5.7.2 Cons of Artificial Intelligence

Cons of Artificial Intelligence are given below:


(i) Machines Cannot Feel Compassion And Sympathy : There is no doubt that machines are much better when it comes to working efficiency but they cannot replace the human connection that makes the team.


(ii) Increase in Unemployment And Job insecurity Issues : With more and more

machines being designed, there will be an abrupt increase in unemployment and job security,Since machines are replacing human resources, the rate of people losing their jobs will



(iii) Risk of Loss of Important Data : We use computers, smart phones and other devices to store almost all our important documents, files, pictures, and videos. Once lost, it is not

possible (or very difficult) to retrieve this information. This can cause serious trouble for your



(iv) The exploitation/misuse of artificial intelligence : Misuse or exploitation of anything is bad. We often hear threats that the misuse of technology can bring the world to a destructive end, This stands true to a great extent as we have seen in animated movies and films related

with AI of Hollywood. If AI is given into wrong hands, high technology machines can definitely destroy society.




Expert systems are computer programs that are derived from a branch of computer science resenrch called Artificial Intelligence (AI). The piece of software which uses databases of

expert knowledge to offer advice or make decisions In other words we can say expert system is a type of software that uses knowledge base to solve a problem. It is mainly developed using artificial intelligence concepts, tools and technologies, and possesses expert knowledge in a particular field, topic or skill. Expert system is a computer program which transforms knowledge of an expert into a software.


Expert systems are created to find the solution of complex problems in particular area.We can depict the working of Expert Systems as shown in the figure,Expert system is decision making software. It gains the knowledge

and capability of problem solving of experts in various fields and

then gives responses. The knowledge which it gains from expert person is known as knowledge base. So expert systems are the best example of knowledge based systems. Following are some more examples of expert system:


DENDRAL : system expert in chemical analysis.


MYCIN: system expert in treating blood infections.


CADET : system expert in detecting cancer at early stages.


PXEDS : system expert in detecting degree of lung cancer.



5.8.1 Components of Expert System

The expert system contains the following components which are  described below-

I. User interface

II Inference engine.

III. Knowledge base


User Interface : It is the interface between user and inference engine. This component takes the questions of the user and then sends it to inference engine. After getting the result it send the answer to the user.


Inference Engine : It is known as the core of the expert system. It takes queries from user and draw conclusions by watching facts and applying rules. Then it sends the result to user

interface. It is also called the brain of the expert system.


(i) Knowledge Base : It is a place where the knowledge from the human experts is collected. Inference engine checks the facts and data from the knowledge base and then draw the conclusions,


5.8.2 Characteristics of Expert Systems

The characteristics of an expert system are as follows-

Expertise : The expert system is expert in a particular area. For example MYCIN

expert system finds the blood infections with high accuracy. So they are a high level of expertise.


Quick Reaction Time : Expert systems are quick in their response when questions are asked by user. Reaction time is very short.


Flexible : It is more flexible in handling questions,


Reliability < It is more reliable because it does not make any mistake.


Decision Quality : Expert systems make the high quality decisions.


Consistent : They provide consistent answers for the same questions.


Cost effective : It decreases the cost of consulting an expert for various domains such as medical diagnosis.


Successful forms of artificial intelligence (AI) : Expert systems are among the first truly successful forms of artificial intelligence (Al) software.


5.8.3 Limitations of Expert systems

Don't have human-like decision making power.


(Can't possess human capabilities,


(Can't produce correct result from less amount of knowledge.


Requires excessive training.


5.8.4 Comparison between Human and Expert Systems



The term robotics stands for the study of robots.Robotics means for the designing, creation, working

and the usability of the robots. Robots are the machines which do the work for humans. Robotics is acombination of science and engineering. It includes

the branches of computer science, artificial intelligence, nanotechnology etc.


Robots are very useful for humans. These are providing helping hands to humans. Robots are replacing the working humans in many areas. Robots are the smart machines which can do

the work by following the instructions themselves. It is the new growing field which has a lot of opportunities for advancement.


We can define robots as the machines with programming which can carry the series of operations for doing a task. They can react in this real world with the help of sensors.


5.9.1 Generations of Robots

Generally we divide the robots into four generations depending upon the use of hardware and software technologies.


(i) First Generation : These are mechanical robots and they don't use external sensors.AI is absent in this generation. They have good precision and high speed also.


(i) Second Generation ; These types of robots use various sensors like pressure sensors,position sensors etc. They have vision system and are programmable.


(i) Third Generation : These generation robots are autonomous. They use artificial intelligence. They have speech recognition and navigation techniques.


(iv) Fourth Generation ; These are smart as human beings. They use the advanced level of AI. These are the future of robotics.


5.9.2 Applications of Robotics

As we all know that robotics is the latest trends in technology. There are lots of applications of robotics as mentioned below-


Military robots : perform military applications such as rescue, search and attack.


Research robots : collect and analyze the data for research work.


Domestic robots : helpful in household.


Construction robots : helpful in construction of buildings, brick laying etc.


Healthcare robots : used in medical field such as surgery.


Industrial robots : performs repetitive tasks of human beings.


Space exploration ; provide immense help to astronauts,


5.9.3 Some Languages used to develop AI are

Python : Python is now most widely used language in AI development due to the

simplicity. The syntaxes belonging to python are very simple and can be easily learnt. Therefore,many AI algorithms can be easily implemented in it. Python takes short development time in comparison to other languages like Java, C++ or Ruby.


R : R is one of the most effective language and environment for analyzing and manipulating the data for statistical purposes.


Lisp : Lisp is one of the oldest and the most suited languages for the development in AI. It was invented by John McCarthy, the father of Artificial Intelligence in 1958.


(iv) Prolog : Prolog is widely used for working on medical projects and also for designing expert AI systems.


(v) Java : Java can also be considered as a good choice for AI development, Artificial intelligence has lot to do with search algorithms, artificial neural networks and genetic programming.



1. Artificial intelligence refers to the intellectual ability developed in an artificial way.


2. AI can be categorized into mainly two types -Type-1 and Type-2.


3. Apple Siri is a good example of narrow artificial intelligence.


4. Reactive machines have no memory and thus unable to store data.


5. Importance of AI- game playing, voice recognition, NLP, computer vision.


6. Al is used to improve productivity, efficiency and accuracy.


7. Expert system is a computer program which transforms knowledge of an expert into a software.


8. Inference Engine is known as the core of the expert system


9. Dendral, Mycin, cadet are famous expert systems.


10. User interface, knowledge base and inference engine sre the components of expert system.


11. Robotics is term derived from the word robot.


12. Some Languages used to develop AI are: Python,R,Lisp,Prolog,Java etc.






1. Multiple Choice Questions:

1. Who brought the concept of AI?

a) Victor Allis

b) = Marvin Minsky

c) Alan Touring

d) John McCarthy


2 Which type of AI focuses on single set of abilities & performs a particular task?

a) Super AI

b) Narrow AI

c) General AI

d) None of these.


3. Which one of AI type does not have memory for data storage

a) Limited Memory

b) = Things of Mind

c) Reactive machines

d) Self Awareness


4. The conversion of natural language into computer understandable form

a) Intrusion detection

b) = Machine translation

c) Identification

d) None of these.


5. Brain of expert system is :-

a) Knowledge base

b) = Inference engine

c) User Interface

d) None of these


6. Place where knowledge from the human expert is collected

a) Domain expert

b) Knowledge Base

c) User

d) All of these


7. Robots which provides help for analyzing the collected data are

a) Healthcare robots

b) Domestic robots

c) Military robots

d) Research robots


2. Fill in the Blanks:

1. _ Artificial Intelligence is divided into two types and IL is a chess playing computer developed by IBM.


2. is a good example of narrow artificial intelligence.


3. ______smachine have no memory.


4. MYCIN and are examples of earlier expert systems.


5. GenerationRobots are smart as humans,


3. Write the Full form of following:


2. NLP Iv. SAI



4. Short Auswer Type Questions. (Write the answers in 4-5 lines)

1. What is artificial intelligence?

2 What are the types and subtypes of AI? Depict them with the help of diagram.

3. Differentiate between the narrow AI and general AI.

4. What do you mean by expert systems? Give examples of expert systems.

5. What is the difference between human system and expert system?

6. What are Limitations of Expert systems?

7. Summarize about some computer languages used in the field of AI?





5. Long Answer Type Questions. (Write the answers in 10-15 lines)

1. What are the applications of artificial intelligence?

2 What is the importance of AI?

3, What are the Pros and Cons of Artificial Intelligence?

4. Discuss the characteristics of expert systems?


1, Draw a chart to represent the Block Diagram of Expert System