Saturday 27 August 2022

Chapter 6th (Digitization)


Chapter 6th (Digitization) 





Digitization is the process of converting information into a digital (i.e. computer-readable)format, in which the information is organized into bits. In modem practice, images, documents,audio, video, etc. are being converted into digital format and digitally stored with the help of computer hardware.By doing this, information can be stored safely for a long time, as well as it become easy to access and work on digitized data.


Nowadays, approximately every government record is digitized, due to which services are being provided easily and in a fast way to the citizen. For example, Land record (Farad),Aadhar, various subjects e-books available on website of Punjab School Education Board,etc.



E-Commerce, also known as electronic commerce or internet commerce, referred as buying and selling of goods or services, use of services, monetary transactions, etc. using the internet. With the facility of E-Commerce, business gets new direction and growth. Examples of e-commerce websites are: Amazon, Flipkart, eBay, OLX, Quikr, etc,


6.2.1 Types of E-Commerce

E-Commerce can be classified into four main categories, on the basis of the parties that are involved in the transactions.


(i) Business to Business (B2B) : Here the companies are doing business with each other, The final customer is not involved, only manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers etc. are



(ii) Business to Customer (B2C) : Here companies and customers are involved. Companies sell their goods and services directly to the customers. The customer can browse company websites and choose the product or service and pay online directly to the company. The

company ships the goods directly to the customers on their address. Examples are Amazon,Flipkart, eBay etc.


(iii) Customer to Customer (C2C) : Here customers and seller are in a direct contact with each other, no company is involved. It helps people sell their personal goods and assets directly to each other. Usually, people sell their used or additional goods to the interested buyer. Example; OLX, Quikr.


(iv) Customer to Business (C2B) : This is the reverse of Business to Customer. Here customer provides a good or some service to the company. Say for example, an IT freelancer who demos and sells his software to a company.


6.2.2 Advantages of E-Commerce

(i) Overcome Geographical Limitations : E-commerce removes the barrier of geographical distance i.e. distant areas. It provides the sellers with a global reach.


(ii) Lower Costs : E-commerce substantially lower the transaction cost, because buyer purchase the product directly from the manufacturer, which eliminates many fixed costs and

taxes. Moreover, to buy goods buyer need not to go anywhere which cuts the transportation cost as well.


(iii) Quick and Easy Delivery : It provides quick delivery of goods to the customer on the given address. Customer complaints are also addressed quickly. It also saves time, energy and

effort for both the customers and the company.


{iv) Available 24x7 hours : One other great advantage is the convenience of shopping it offers. A customer can shop anytime, any day. There are no closing days or hours.


{v) Easy shopping : While we are shopping in the market, sometimes shopping becomes difficult due to heavy crowd whereas on internet, no such thing happens. We may opt for our

required product from the wide range of products over there.


{vi) Easy accessibility : In e-commerce, customer can browse product category pages and use the site search feature to find the product immediately, compare with other similar products and select the best of them.


6.2.3 Disadvantages of E-Commerce

(i) Wait time : If a customer sees an item that he or she likes in a store, the customer pays for it and then goes home with it, With e-commerce, there is a wait time for the product to be

shipped to the customer's address,


(ii) Unsure about the quality : When customer buys an item from store, customer can check the quality of the item before shopping. One of the biggest problems with buying things

online is that you will have no guarantee of a products’ quality. Customer only comes to know about the quality of the item after receiving it.


(iii) Security issues : E-commerce sites record all the important details about the customers which are to be kept secured. If an unauthorized person or group gains access to such important

details of customer, then customer has to bear heavy financial or personal damage. Customer's money can be withdrawn without customer's knowledge and further customer's identity can be



{iv) Not able to try before buy : While buying online an item, customer will not have much ability to inspect physically. For example, if customer goes to a shop to buy  cloths,

Duarrizarion 86 customer can try or wear the cloths to check if fits properly and suits. But in online shopping,it is not possible,



Digital payment, also called Online Payment or e-payment or electronic payment. It is a cashless, easy and fast way of payment, which is made through digital modes. In digital

payments, payer and payee both use digital modes to send and receive money. In today's time,online payment method is popular. Money transfer, shopping, mobile or dish recharge, water or electricity or phone bills can easily be paid via digital payment mode.


6.3.1 Online Payment Methods

i Credit Cards

ii. Debit Cards

iii. E-Wallets

iv. Net Banking/ Banking Apps

v. Mobile Banking

vi. BHIM App


(i) Credit Card : It is a form of an e-

payment system in which banks or financial institutions issued their customer "a small plastic card” with a unique number and a coded magnetic strip embedded on it which is used to read credit card via card readers.

When a customer purchases a product via credit card, credit card issuer bank pays on behalf of the customer and customer has a certain time period in which he/she can pay the credit card bill. When customers do shopping using credit card then customer has to swipe

his/her credit card on swipe machine (card reader machine) and has to enter a 4 digit secret pin number. Payment stands successful if the secret pin is entered correctly. Customer has to keep

secure his/her 4 digit pin number to avoid misuse of his/her credit card.


(ii) Debit Card ; Debit card, like credit card,is a small plastic card with a unique number mapped

with the bank account number and a coded magnetic strip embedded in it which is used to read credit

card via card readers.It is required to have a bank account before getting a debit card from the bank.The major difference between a debit card and a

ctedit card is that in case of payment through debit card, the amount gets deducted from the card's bank account immediately and there should be

sufficient balance in the bank account for the transaction to get completed.


(iii) E-Wallets : In this method of payment, digital payment apps are used. These apps store the credit card/debit card or linked bank account information of the customer for easy payment. E-wallet is the digital version of your physical wallet with more functionality. You can keep your money in an E-wallet and use it when needed. User name and password is used

to use E-wallet, Examples of E-wallets are: PayTm etc.


(iv) NetBanking / Banking Apps : NetBanking also called as Internet Banking. This facility is like a revolution, in the era of the traditional banking system, which does not require customers to visit the bank branch to perform a simple bank transaction.Put simply; NetBanking is an electronic payment system, that allows the bank account holder to execute the different types of transaction, such as bank account statement, fund transfer, bill payments, fund transfer to saving schemes, etc. anytime and anywhere using the bank's website, To avail this facility, customer has to visit bank branch once and applyfor Net

Banking by filing an application, concerned bank than issues a unique user name and password to its customer to use NetBanking. This user name and password is very sensitive and important and must be kept safe by the concerned customer and must be used in a safe and secure manner. If any unauthorized person gain access to the NetBanking user name and password,

than money from particular account can be stolen. Therefore banks also advice customers to use NetBanking safely.


{v) Mobile Banking : Mobile banking can be described as the facility provided by the banks to its clients, in which they can access their bank accounts and undertake monetary transactions remotely such as mini statement, balance etc. using mobiles by sending specific format SMS (Short Messaging Service). For this, bank issues specific phone numbers on which customers need to send SMS in prescribed format to get required information or to perform other transactions. For this bank charge some amount from the customer.


(vi) BHIM App (Bharat Interface for Money) : BHIM (Bharat Interface for Money) is a mobile application designed by NPCI (National Payment Corporation of India) and based on UPI (Unified Payment Interface). It is a simple, easy and fast way of payment, for which UPI ID or QR (Quick Response) Code of concemed person is used for payment. One can transfer funds, do bill payments, buy tickets, recharge mobile or dish etc, with the help of this app.


6.3.2 Benefits of Online Payment

(i) Easy and convenient : Digital payments are easy and convenient. You do not need to carry cash always.


(ii Pay or send money from anywhere, anytime : With various digital payment modes,you can send or receive money from anywhere, anytime.


(iii) Cash Back Benefits/Discounts : Government has announced many discounts to encourage digital payments.



E-learning is also called as Electronic Learning/Online Learning/Online Education and it means to get education through the internet. It's an easy and convenient way to get education,

in which one can opt for desirable course from the wide list of courses and subjects available online and one can study from home. This technique is very useful for job oriented people and

residents of remote area locations where no nearby educational institute is present. This technique has removed the geographical limitations. Learner even can get admission in foreign

school, college or university through online mode and study at home and give online exam also and if successfully completed the course, can download the course completion certificate

online or can also demand hard copy on his/her address, Concerned institute send all the required study stuff to the leamer through internet in the form of e-books, video or audio lectures, presentations etc. Leamer can download the required study stuff on his computer to study.


Some of the popular tools for E-Learning:

1. MOOCs



4. PSEB E-Books



(1) MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) : MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses)

are fast gaining popularity among students and working professionals as they help them study at their convenience and time. Here wide list of courses if offered and learner can opt for interested course, can use study stuff provided there. These courses are available at:,


(2) SWAYAM (Study Webs of Active-Learning for Young Aspiring Minds) : The program of Human Resource Development Ministry spells out as Study Webs of Active-Learning for Young Aspiring Minds (SWAYAM). Like MOOCs, it also offers wide range of courses. The SWAYAM program offers digital classrooms with the help of internet and satellite connectivity to the remotest comers in the country. Swayam provides online study material to

students free of cost. This covers courses from class 9th to post-graduation. To use it, a SWAYAM Application can be downloaded or from


(3) SWAYAM PRABHA ; The SWAYAM PRABHA is a group of 32 DTH channels

devoted to telecasting of high-quality educational programmes on 24X7 basis using the GSAT-15 satellite. Every day, there will be new content for at least


(4) hours which would be repeated

5 more times in a day, allowing the students to choose the time of their convenience. The contents are provided by NPTEL, IITs, UGC, CEC, IGNOU, NCERT and NIOS. The INFLIBNET Centre maintains the web portal This program

covers; Higher and Secondary Education, preparation of various competitive exams.



The vision of National Academic Depository (NAD) is bom out of an initiative to provide an online store house of all academic  awards/certificates. National Academic Depository (NAD) is a 24X7 online facility, Using NAD one can store his/her documents/awards/certificates

digitally and one can download the same. NAD not only ensures easy access to and retrieval of an academic award but also validates and guarantees its authenticity and safe storage.



DigiLocker is targeted at the idea of paperless governance; DigiLocker is a platform for issuance and verification of documents & certificates in a digital way, thus eliminating the use of physical documents. Indian citizens, who sign up for a DigiLocker account, get a dedicated cloud storage space that is linked to their Aadhaar (UIDAI)

number. Organizations that are registered with Digital Locker can push

electronic copies of documents and certificates (e.g. driving license, Voter ID, different certificates) directly into citizens’ lockers. It provides 1GB storage space to a

person who registers on it.


6.6.1 How to use DigiLocker

1. Go to website or download DigiLocker app on your smattphone. Using your Aadhaar number and mobile number you can create a user ID using an OTP.


2. If some organization has uploaded any of your e-documents, you can see it in the account, You can also upload your own documents and e-sign them.


3. You also get the facility of sharing documents with others by sharing a link to the e-document.


Note : Donot forget to logout from your Digilocker account after using it.

aiin’s to Rementier

1. Digitization is the process of converting information into computer readable and storable form.


2. E-Commerce means to buy or sell things, use services, monetary transactions using intemet.


3. Digital Payment is a cashless, easy and fast online mode of payment.


4. NetBanking is the online facility provided by banks to its customer by which customer can perform monetary transactions, get account statement, pay bills etc.


5. E-learning is the simple and convenient way to get education through intemet from home.


6. National Academic Depository is the online initiative where one can upload and store securely, important documents.


7. DigiLocker is a platform for issuance and verification of documents & certificates in a digital way.

Part-A (Questions carrying 1 Mark each)

1. Multiple Choice Questions:


1 is the process to convert information into computer readable form.

a) E-leaming

b) E-commerce

c) Digitization

d) Net Banking


2. is meant to be online buying and selling of goods.

a) E-commerce

b) Digi Locker

c) Digital Payment

d) None of these


3. Easiest and convenient way for cashless payment is .

a) Digitization

b) Storage

c) Offline

d) Digital Payment


4. stores only those educational certificates, issued by educational institutesthrough digital mode.


b) NAD

c) MOOCs

d) DigiLocker


5. _____ isa type of e-commerce which involves company and customer.

a) B2B

b) B2C

c) 5=6<C2c

d) None of these


Part-B (Questions carrying 3 marks)

2. Short Answer Type Questions. (Write the answers in 4-5 lines)

1. What is digitization?

2. Describe NetBanking.

3. What you mean by e-commerce?

4. Name types of e-commerce.

5. Write down the benefits of online payment.

6. Describe Digi Locker.

7 What is e-learning?

8. What is digital or online payment?


Part-C (Questions carrying 5 marks)

3. Long Answer Type Questions. (Write the answers in 10-15 lines)

1. Write down the types of e-commerce in detail.

2. Write down the advantages and disadvantages of E-commerce.

3. Give brief note on various digital or online payment modes.

4. Describe popular e-learning tools.

5. What is National Academic Depository? How it differs from Digi Locker?


Ua Aetiutigy

1. Download your 10th class certificate from Digi Locker.

2. Download E-book of computer science for 11th Class from PSEB website.