Saturday 27 August 2022

Chapter 7th (E Governance Part-2)


 Chapter 7th (E Governance Part-2)




E-Govemance stands for electronic governance. It means to implement and organize government policies, orders and services effectively. After getting its literal meaning it is important to know that what kind of electronic rule is E-Governance and which activities

certified it as an electronic rule. Let's know what in fact E-Govemance is?



The word Governance refers to the activities of a government. It is the set of rules and laws framed by the government that are to be implemented through the representatives of the state. To support and simplify governance for government, citizens and businesses,E-Governance has been introduced in the recent times.

E-Governance is an application of information and communication  technology which uses internet (web portals, emails etc.)and other electronic media (mobiles,

computers, tablets etc.) to provide services and facilities offered by government to its citizens in a transparent, speedy and cost-effective way. As meaning of E-Governance clears that E-Governance is a kind of rule done by electronic media using internet. Today, every work is done online whether it is government or non-government.Even the facilities and services provided by government to its citizens are online and payments in return to these services and facilities are also done online.



As discussed above, E-Governance is a working system in which governments, citizens and organizations take part in the online facilities and services. They do their activities using

internet in different ways. The working system of E-governance can be divided into following parts:


(1) G2G (Government to Government) : In this type of E-Governance, data and information is shared between Central Government and State Governments and vice versa. Further, Govt.

agencies, departments or organisations come under the preview of Government to Government E-Governance by improving communication, data access and information sharing.


(i) G2C (Government to Citizen) ; In this type of E-Governance, government provides services and facilities to its citizens, additionally, government and citizens, both communicate with each other. Government provides those services which are directly related to public. These services are free or provided at minimum charges. For example people can avail services like

apply online for Aadhar Card or PAN Card at very low fees and apply for many services at free of cost. Further online payment of utility bills and income tax comes under this part of



(i) G2B (Government to Business) : In this type, those services are included which are provided by government to the business. Through these services government and business organization communicate with each other. Online selling and buying of goods, taxes on goods or subsidies on business are the services which are provided by government to business. All these services are provided online through this part of E- Governance.


(iv) G2E (Government to Employee) : In this type of E-Governance those services and facilities are included that take place between government and its employees. Government provides many services and facilities to its employees for better working conditions. Nowadays,salary bills of employees, their service records, their departmental transfers and all other

records related to employees are maintained online by governments. Examples: iHRMS,eHRMS


(v) G2N (Government to NGOs) : Now a new branch has been added in the E-Governance by which government and non-government organization can communicate with each other. In

this part those services are included by which government certifies these non-government organizations. The work of registration of these non-government organizations or societies comes under this part.For example: communication between government and political parties or NGOs



The working system of E-governance is done at different levels.It is important to differentiate the levels of facilities and services which are provided by different levels of government.So the different levels of E-governance are:


(a) National Level : The online services and facilities provided at this level,by central government of India to Indian citizens. All the controls on these services is of central government and its different departments. The main services and facilities of this level are:

i. Online Passport service

ii. Online Aadhar card service

iii. Online PAN card service

iv, Online Income Tax service

v. Online Life Insurance services

vi. Online Post services

vii. Online Booking services of railway and air tickets

viii. Online Voter card services


(6) Domestic Level/State Level : The services and facilities at this level are provided by state government,and its related departments, Some of the important services of this level are:

i. Online service to make birth or death certificate


ii.Online service of applying for caste certificate


iv. Online service for registration of vehicles


v. Online complaint registration


vi. Online verification of any kind of data


vii. Online applying for transfer


viii. Online submission of applications


ix. Online payment of different kind of bills


x. Online entries of land records


xi. Online service for applying Driving Licenses


(c) International Level : The online services of this level are provided by central or state government to the citizens. These are controlled by government with the help of international organization. The main services of this level are:

i. Online booking of international airways tickets


ii, Online applying for international visa


iii. Online Import and Export Services'



As we know everything has its own benefits and drawbacks. Similarly E-Governance also has its benefits and limitations. Let's have a look on its benefits and drawbacks:


7.5.1 Benefits of E-Governance

Easy to Access : As we know, E-Governance provides online services so that every citizen can access these services easily. People can get these services at their home or nearby Sewa or Suvidha Kendra. People can avail various services like applying

for Aadhar card, PAN card, Passport etc. online.


Close relationship : As public can get the services easily it develops a close

relationship between government and citizens. It is also an easy way for government to provide these services to citizens directly.


Time saving : After E-governance, all works of government are being done in an easy and fast way. Due to online procedure tasks can be done in less time which before takes days to complete. Now people do not need to visit offices again and again which saves their valuable time


Saves money : E-Govemance reduces paperwork cost, travelling cost of consumers and government have to employ less manpower, which saves lots of money.


Transparency : E-Governance has created a transparent environment in working

style of all offices. Now people can check the status of their applications online.


Responsibility : Due to the transparency in online government working system, the officer responsible for the delay in work will be answerable. In some states, most of

the work is time-bound and the work should be completed in the given time-period.


7.5.2 Limitations of E-Governance

Not everyone can use E-Services : In India, many people in villages are still illiterate that do not have knowledge of computers and internet, so they cannot get full use of government's online facilities and services.


Availability of internet services is required : E-Governance is implemented only if intemmet services are available.


Lack of knowledge and awareness : As most of population of India lives in

village, these people do not have proper awareness about online services provided by govemment.


Start-ap cost : One of limitation of E-Governance is its costly establishment and management. Government have to pay a big amount to provide E-Services to the public. To open Sewa Kender in every village facilitate with good computers,

internet services and highly qualified faculty is a costly task.


Security threat : E-Governance is online system. It requires certain measures to apply security to confidential information. Internet cannot be considered as fully secure,2s information on the internet can be stolen and mis-used by hackers,



Smart governance is another form of ¢ -governance. We can say that the modern name of e-governance is smart governance. Smart means attractive or active and governance means rule, so smart govemance is an attractive or active rule. Smart governance means any democratic government which provide effective, easy to get and equal services to citizens that contribute in

the public welfare and economic growth of the nation. On the technical bases using new technology for good planning and decision by the democratic government is known as smart

technology and it makes the democratic system strong. These are those mobile techniques which provide government facilities and services to the common people in very easy and fast

way. To implement e-governance services we use ICT techniques like internet, computers and mobile technology, uses of these technologies make e- governance a smart governance. In

simple words we can say that providing services and facilities under e-governance with the help of modem technology in an effective and attractive way is called smart govemmance. Now we will discuss some points that present e-governance as smart governance.


Single Window Services and Facilities : In the government offices such as suvidha kender / Sewa kender many facilities are provided in a single window, for example:applying Aadhar card, PAN card, Caste certificate, Income certificate, Birth - Death

certificate etc. For all such certificates a person does not need to go here and there,all these services are available at 2 single window/counter.


Smart Applications : Nowadays, government provides many smuert applications (apps) to the citizens related to its services and facilities. With the use of these applications, citizen can take benefits of many type of services while sitting at home.


Facility of smart cards : Smat cards like driving licence, PAN card, vehicle

registration card (RC), ATM cards and credit cards etc. are issued using smart governance.


Development of Smart Cities and Smart Buildings Central and State Governments

are developing many cities as smart cities by providing high speed internet services equipped with latest technology.


Toll free numbers : Governments have issued many toll free numbers for different putposes to the public to register their complaints or suggestions or to avail services.

People can use these numbers from anywhere and anytime, Examples are: 108 for ambulance, 1091 for women-helpline, 1098 for child-helpline and 112 for police-helpline.



To provide services and facilities under E-Govemance, centre and state governments of India take many steps from time to time.Government has opened many help-centres at different levels (district,tehsils, blocks,cities,villages) to providee-services and facilities through


E- Governance.These help centres are called Sarba Sewa kendra or Sewa kendra. In Punjab, at district/tehsil/city/village level Suvidha Kendra/Sewa Kendra are established, These Kendras

provide E-Services to citizens. Additionally, to provide administrative E-services, there are

Sanjh Kendras inside the police stations, here people can register their complaints online and

get receipt for further use, Some online services and facilities are as following:

i, Online residence certificate

ii. Online caste certificate

iii. Online birth or death certificate

iv. Online certificate regarding income

v. Online Aadhar card.

vi. Online certificate for religion

vii. Online registries and intkal of land

viii. Deposit electricity , telephone and other kind of bills and fees online

ix. Online issue of vehicle registration certificate (RC)

x. Applying for old age/widow/handicap pension

xi. Issue online driving Licenses etc.



Aadhar card has become an important and useful identity proof.Students should know the importance and use of Aadhar cards.Because now a days to fill any kind of form Aadhar card

is mandatory.For example, if student wants to apply for any scholarship scheme, for board registration or fill any other form Aadhar is a necessary document.


7.8.1 What is an Aadhar ?

An Aadhar is a 12 digit (**** **** ****) unique identity card number that is issued by Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) to the Indian citizens. No two people in India

can have the same Aadhar number. This number is issued to Indian citizens after verifying their important documents, After getting this unique ID

number an Indian citizen get a unique identification.Because with this number we can verify all the information about that particular persons to whom

this number is issued.An Aadhar card includes two type of information about the person. Following information we can get by Aadhar card number:


Demographic or Personal Information : Adhaar Card is used as identity and

residential proof as it includes personal particulars and demographic information (address) of the person.


Biometric Information : While making of an Adhaar card, biometric information

(scanning of finger prints and iris ic. eye scan and photograph) are stored in



7.8.2 Features of Aadhar

As we know that Aadhaar has been certified as an important document and it is used for many purposes. Now we will discuss its features :


Unique Identification : The first feature of Aadhaar number is that it gives an unique identity to an Indian citizen. One citizen can has only one Aadhaar card number,


Proof of Residence : It stores the complete residential address of the concerned person.


No Expiry Issue : It does not have any expiry date. There is no need to renew it as it is a life time document.


Proof of Identity ; As Aadhaar card contains personal information and electronically biometric information of the concerned person can be validated. Hence it is used as proof of identity.


Online Authentication ; It is also used for online authentication of Indian citizens,Today’s time for all online facilities such as online banking,gas subsidies etc.Aadhar number is used as online authentication.In online process, beneficiary's data is

checked out with the demographic and biometric data of beneficiaries Aadhar card data.This process of linking is known as Aadhaar seeding and Mapping.


7.8.3 Uses of Aadhar

Uses of an Aadhar card are as follows:

i, To open bank account

ii,To get gas connection and subsidies

iii. To apply for Pan card

iv. To get mobile SIM or telephone connection

v. To E-verify the income tax return

vi. To verify personal and demographic/biometric data,

vii. To get the benefits of welfare schemes

viii. Can be used as an unique identity proof



Information System(IS) is a system which is used by people,organisations and companies to collect data, filter data,process data to form into information and share it. Information

system is a software/programme that is used to produce information, store information and communicate information through computer and internet. Simply we can say that group of ICT techniques which is used to collect raw data, produce information from raw data and take decision based on this information is known as information system. A computer based information system has following components:


Hardware components : This part contains keyboard, monitor, mouse, CPU,

motherboard, hard disks, printers etc, which are combined together to do work.


Software components : It contains that programmes which are used by user to

process data through hardware  components.


Database components : This part is used to store relative data in the form of single file.


Network components : This is the part through which we can share sources,

information and data.


Procedures : In this part that methods and procedures are used which translate raw data into meaningful information


Types of Information System are as follows:

Transaction Processing System (TPS) : This type of Information system is used

in business organizations for buying or selling, to prepare pay roll and all kind of business entries and records. For example: banking systems.


Decision Support System (DSS) : This type of Information systemis used by the management of any organization for taking decisions for the organization based on collected data,


Executive Information System (EIS) : These information systems are used by the heads of organizations to control the working system of the organizations in an efficient manner and it becomes very easy for heads to issue instructions to the people working under them,


Management Information System (MIS) : This type of information system plays

an important role in the management of any organization. These systems store all the records related to  organization. For example : Education Department of Punjab uses MIS to store data of schools, students and staff.


Expert System : These types of systems are used to solve the complicated problems mostly in science and intelligence departments. These systems enable us to take major decisions based on collected data on a serious issue. That's why, these are also called expert decision-making system.


1. The way in which government provide online facilities and services to its citizens is called E-Governance.


2. The working system of e-governance is divided into G2G, G2C,G2B, G2E, G2N etc.


3. The levels of E-governance are - national level, domestic level, and international level.


4, The facilities and services provided by E-Governance through internet in an aftractive way are called smart governance.


5.  Aadhar is a 12 digit unique identity card number which gives a unique identity to cach


6. Today, Aadhar card is used for bank account, gas connection, PAN card, income tax return, sim card etc.


7. Information system is computer software that is used to get information, communicate information, to store and share the information.


8. The main parts of information system are hardware, software, database, network and procedures.


9. The types of information system are - transaction processing system, decision support system, executive information system, management information system, expert system



10. Some imporstant websites are :- (For passport services)


i) (For income tax services)

(ii) (For Aadhar card services)Gv) (1) (For Voters of Punjab)


(2) (Election commission of India)




Part-A (Questions carrying 1 Mark each)

1. Maltiple Choice Questions:


1. The online service of government is called-

a) Public welfare services

b) = democracy services

c) E-governance

d) internet services


2 G2C Stands for -

a) Government to employee

b) Government to citizens

c) Government to business man

d) Goverment to government


3. The modern form of E-Governance services is:

a) E-Business

b) E-Commerce

c) E-Services

d) Smart governance


4. How many digits are there in Aadhar card number?




d 10


5. Which one is the part of information system?

a) Database and procedures

b) so network

c) Hardware and software

d) Allof these


2. Fill in the blanks:

1. The services and facilities of E-governance is divided into parts.

2 gives an unique identity to Indian citizens.

3. In Punjab at village level gives E-Govemance services.

4. is used to solve difficult problems.

5. Smart cards are symbol of —


3. Very Short Answer Type Questions

1, Write the full form of UIDAI?

2 Name any two information systems?

3. Write the names of different levels of E-governance?

4. Write the full form of G2G?

5. Write the full form of TPS?



Part-B (Questions carrying 3 marks)

4. Short Answer Type Questions. (Write the answers in 4-5 lines)

1. What are the three levels of E-governance? Give detail.

2 In brief describe Smart Governance?

3, Write down any four uses of Aadhar card?

4. What are the different parts of information system?

5. What is the Sewa/Suvidha Kendra? Describe.


Part-C (Questions carrying 5 marks)

5. Long Answer Type Questions. (Write the answers in 10-15 lines)

1. What do you mean by E-Governance? Define its working system?

2 What are the benefits and limitations of E-Governance?

3. What is Aadhar card? Describe its characteristics?

4. Write down the list of services provided by Sewa/Suvidha Kendra?

5. What is information system7Describe its types?


Make a list of Websites for the following E Governance activities:

Website to apply Online passport


Website to Update your Aadhar Card


Website for filing Income tax Return


Website for Booking of Indian railway ticket


Website to apply for Voter Card OO

Write the Toll-free numbers for the following:


Ambulance Help Line Number


Women Help Line Number OO


Children Help Line Number


Police Help Line Number